The west side of
the Gateway of the Sun.
Door of the Moon
Door of the SUn - Broken and
Half-Buried - an Old Photograph...
- Door of the Sun: The Oldest City of the world?
(Spanish: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian
archaeological site in western Bolivia, South America. An
archaeologically based theory asserts that around AD 400, Tiwanaku
is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important
precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual and
administrative capital of a major state power for approximately five
hundred years. The ruins of the ancient city state are near the
south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca in the La Paz Department,
Ingavi Province, Tiwanaku Municipality, about 72 km (45 mi) west of
La Paz. The site was first recorded in written history by Spanish
conquistador and self-acclaimed "first chronicler of the Indies"
Pedro Cieza de León. Leon stumbled upon the remains of Tiwanaku in
1549 while searching for the Inca capital Qullasuyu. Some have
hypothesized that Tiwanaku's modern name is related to the Aymara
term taypiqala, meaning "stone in the center", alluding to the
belief that it lay at the center of the world. However, the name by
which Tiwanaku was known to its inhabitants may have been lost, as
the people of Tiwanaku had no written language.
archaeologist Arturo Posnansky, found evidence in this ancient
Bolivian temple complex and dates the site by astronomical time to
by around 12,000 - 17,000 years old ??
Oldest City in the World? ( 2 mins)
Tiahuanaco even older than Jericho? Peruvian archaeologist Arthur
Posnansky, found evidence in this ancient Bolivian temple complex,
that could date it back to more than 17,000 years old.
Tiwanaku - The Most Mysterious Ancient
City On Earth ( 18 mins)
An archaeological series filmed in the
Andes of Bolivia, South America, showing the history of the Andean
civilization which is almost unknown by the world today.
Very good Photos >>
and Excellent Info… >
Creator God – ("Creator of
Viracocha is the
great creator god in the pre-Inca and Inca mythology in the Andes
region of South America. Full name and some spelling alternatives
are Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra and Con-Tici (also spelled Kon-Tiki)
Viracocha. Viracocha was one of the most important deities in the
Inca pantheon and seen as the creator of all things, or the
substance from which all things are created, and intimately
associated with the sea. Viracocha created the universe, sun, moon
and stars, time (by commanding the sun to move over the sky) and
civilization itself. Viracocha was worshipped as god of the sun and
of storms. He was represented as wearing the sun for a crown, with
thunderbolts in his hands, and tears descending from his eyes as
rain. - According to the myth recorded by Juan de Betanzos,
Viracocha rose from Lake Titicaca (or sometimes the cave of
Pacaritambo) during the time of darkness to bring forth light.
The Coming of the Incas
Building, Pumapunku Tiahuanaco,
Cutting these patterns is very hard,
even with today’s technology!!
This cut, the depth of which is accurate
to 1 mm all the way was not
made using stone or copper tools?
The Carved Area was filled
with metal to secure the union of stones
Aymara, Puma Punku's name means, "The Door of the Puma".
called “Puma Pumku” or “Puma Puncu”, is part of a large temple
complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near
Tiwanaku, Bolivia. In Aymara, its name means, “The Door of the
Cougar”. The Pumapunku complex consists of an unwalled western
court, a central unwalled esplanade, a terraced platform mound that
is faced with megalithic stone, and a walled eastern court. The
Pumapunku is a terraced earthen mound that is faced with megalithic
blocks. It is 167.36 m wide along its north-south axis and 116.7 m
long along its east-west axis. On the northeast and southeast
corners of the Pumapunku it has 20-meter wide projections that
extend 27.6 meters north and south from the rectangular mound. The
eastern edge of the Pumapunku is occupied by what is called the
“Plataforma Lítica.” The Plataforma Lítica consists of a stone
terrace that is 6.75 by 38.72 meters in dimension. This terrace is
paved with multiple enormous stone blocks. The Plataforma Lítica
contains the largest stone slab found in both the Pumapunku and
Tiwanaku Site. This stone slab is 7.81 meters long, 5.17 meters wide
and averages 1.07 meters thick. Based upon the specific gravity of
the red sandstone from which it was carved, this stone slab has been
estimated to weigh 131 metric tons. The core of the Pumapunku
consists of clay. The fill underlying selected parts of the edge of
the Pumapunku consists of river sand and cobbles instead of clay.
Excavations at the Pumapunku have documented “three major building
epochs, in addition to small repairs and remodeling.”[
The oldest layer
of mound fill forming the Pumapunku. This layer was deposited during
the first of three construction epochs and dates the initial
construction of the Pumapunku at 1510 ±25 B.P. C14 (AD 440;
calibrated, AD 536–600). Since the radiocarbon date came from the
lowermost and oldest layer of mound fill underlying the andesite and
sandstone stonework, the stonework must have been constructed
sometime after 1510 ±25 B.P. C14.
the walls of Pumapunku, each stone was finely cut to interlock with
the surrounding stones and the blocks fit together like a puzzle
Ruins of Tiahuanaco and Puma Punku ( 8 mins)
The History Channel Program "Ancient Aliens"
The Stone Age
refers to a period of time in human prehistory, all the way back
from the first primate toolmaking (Homo habilis), more than 2.6
million years ago to about 3500 BC, when metallurgy in the form of
smelting copper ore was developed. The Stone Age is divided into
three segments, the Paleolithic (literally: Old Stone Age),
Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age), and Neolithic (New Stone Age). (
Estimated to ne 17,0000 Year old)
truly startles the imagination. It seems to be the remains of a
great wharf (for Lake Titicaca long ago lapped upon the shores of
Tiahuanaco) and a massive, four-part, now collapsed building. One of
the construction blocks from which the pier was fashioned weighs an
estimated 440 tons (equal to nearly 600 full-size cars) and several
other blocks laying about are between 100 and 150 tons. The quarry
for these giant blocks was on the western shore of Titicaca, some
ten miles away. There is no known technology in all the ancient
world that could have transported stones of such massive weight and
size. The Andean people of 500 AD, with their simple reed boats,
could certainly not have moved them. Even today, with all the modern
advances in engineering and mathematics, we could not fashion such a
The Mystery PUMA
PUNKU ( 6:21 Mins)
A temple build
of Granite and Diorite (Diorite cannot be cut with anything else but
Diamond tools). The processes and technologies involved in the
creation of these temples are still not fully understood by modern
scholars. In assembling the walls of Pumapunku, each stone was
finely cut to interlock with the surrounding stones and the blocks
fit together like a puzzle.
Ancient Aliens of Puma Punku
( 10 Mins)
Wonders of the
world, Puma Punku ( 5mins)
temple build of Granite and Diorite, (Diorite cannot be cut with
anything else but Diamond tools)
and technologies involved in the creation of these temples are still
not fully understood by modern scholars. In assembling the walls of
Pumapunku, each stone was finely cut to interlock with the
surrounding stones and the blocks fit together like a puzzle.
New Underground Discovery at
ruins of Puma Punku are one of four structures in the ancient city
of Tiahuanaco. The others three structures are; The Akapana Pyramid,
the Kalasasaya Platform, and the Subterranean Temple.
Pumapunku also called “Puma Pumku” or
“Puma Puncu”, is part of a large temple complex or monument group
that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku,Bolivia. In Aymara,
its name means, “The Door of the Cougar”. The Pumapunku complex
consists of an unwalled western court, a central unwalled esplanade,
a terraced platform mound that is faced with megalithic stone, and a
walled eastern court. . The Plataforma Lítica contains the largest
stone slab found in both the Pumapunku and Tiwanaku Site. This stone
slab is 7.81 meters long, 5.17 meters wide and averages 1.07 meters
thick. Based upon the specific gravity of the red sandstone from
which it was carved, this stone slab has been estimated to weigh 131
There was some amazing lifting going on also. The great pyramid
has 80 ton blocks that were lifted up high and set in place. Puma
Punku has pieces as big as 130 tons.
Excellent photos >>>>>>
- Aerial View image -
Google Earth -
New Underground Discovery at Puma
This is one of the excavated entrances.
The pyramid is dramatically damaged by looting and quarrying that
began with the Spanish Conquest and has continued through the 20th
Century. A large "looter's hole" can be seen in the center of the
pyramid's top surface.
They had developed a sophisticated
irrigation system that prevented frost damage to crops.
Mound at Tiwanaku
Akapana resembles a large natural hill more than a pyramid. Closer
inspection shows walls and columns sticking out from the base and
carved stones on its summit and tumbling down the sides. The
somewhat amorphous shape of this tremendous pyramid is the result of
centuries of looting and quarrying of its stones for colonial
churches and even for a railway built in the 1900s. New research
shows that this pyramid was never quite finished in antiquity.
At Tiwanaku we
seem to have an interesting situation where the city's previous
infrastructure was razed and completely redone just before the city
was suddenly abandoned. It seems that around A.D. 700, three
centuries into the existence of Tiwanaku as a monumental and
powerful city, there was a sudden change to direct all construction
efforts toward building what was the largest structure in the Andes.
The previous monuments of the city were torn down and their stones
reused to build the Akapana pyramid. The effort was too great, and
the pyramid lay unfinished when the city
was abandoned. One Spanish
chronicler said of Tiwanaku, "They build their monuments as if their
intent was never to finished them."
We could be
seeing the rise of a powerful king, a popular religious movement, or
the formation of a multicultural city. Whatever the cause behind
this massive transformation, it didn't last long. By A.D. 950 all
monumental construction suddenly ends with stones in various stages
of dressing scattered around the partially built monuments.
an ancient pyramid a facelift. Workers plastered the Akapana pyramid
– one of the biggest constructions in South America which predates
the Incas – with adobe to make it look more impressive.
problem, according to some experts, is that the new look is an
archaeological travesty which could cost the pyramid its UN world
heritage site designation. Rather than clay bricks, the original
construction, of immense spiritual significance for the Tiwanaku
civilisation, is believed to have used stone
A Trip to Tiwanaku Bolivia - The Mystery of the Akapana Pyramid ( 2
Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most
important precursors to the Inca Empire, flourishing as the ritual
and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately
five hundred years.
Scientists decode the life giving riddle of Bolivia's great Akapana
Isla de la Luna (Island of the Moon) & Isla del Sol
(Island of the Sun) on Lake Titicaca
The Island of the Moon, much smaller than the Island
of the Sun, is said to be where Viracocha commanded the moon to
Sun Island in the Bolivian part of Lake
Titicaca is the most sacred of all Inca sites. In legend it is the
location of the birth of the nation. The origin of the Inca
civilisation is shrouded in mystery. Legend has it that Manco Capac
and his sister emerged from the waters of Lake Titicaca around
1200AD, created by the Sun god as founders of the Inca race.
Stone Alter of El Rocque on Boliva's Sacred Island of the Sun.
del Sol (Island of the Sun) - Lake Titicaca, Bolivia ( 7 mins)
There are no motor vehicles or paved roads on the island.
Archaeologists have discovered evidence that people lived on the
island as far back as the third millennium BCE. In the religion of
the Incas, it was believed that the sun god was born here.
According to Inca origin myth that took place on the northern part
of this island, Inca Manco Cápac is said to have emerged from a
prominent crag in a large sandstone outcrop known as Titikala (the
Sacred Rock). Manco Cápac is the son of Inti the Andean deity
identified as the sun. In one version of the myth, the ancient
people of the province were without light in the sky for many days
and grew frightened of the darkness. Finally, the people saw the Sun
emerge from the crag and believed it was the Sun's dwelling place.
Magna Bowl - The Fuente Magna of Pokotia
The Fuente Magna bowl was found
accidentally by a worker from the CHUA Hacienda, property of the
Manjon family located near Lake Titicaca about 75-80 km from the
city of La Paz, Bolivia (see Photo). The site where it was found had
not been studied for artifacts previously. The Fuente Magna is
beautifully engraved in earthen-brown both inside and out and bears
zoological motifs and anthropomorphic characters within.
The Bolivian archeologist, don Max Portugal-Zamora, learned of the
Fuente Magna’s existence around 1958-1960 from his friend Pastor
Manjon. Both gave the site the name it bears today, "Fuente Magna"
(see Spanish account)
A controversy arose about the cuneiform script on the Fuente Magna.
Dr. Alberto Marini, translated it and reported that it was
Sumerian.. After a careful examination of the Fuente Magna, linear
script Dr. Clyde A. Winters determined that it was probably
Proto-Sumerian, which is found on many artifacts from in
Mesopotamia. An identical script was used by the Elamites called
Dr. Winters believed that researchers had been unable to read the
writing because they refused to compare Proto-Elamite and
Proto-Sumerian writing with other writing systems used in 3000-2000
BC. He compared the writing to the Libyco-Berber writing used in the
Sahara 5000 years ago. This writing was used by the Proto-Dravidians
(of the Indus Valley), Proto-Mande , Proto-Elamites and
Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact
is interaction between indigenous peoples of the Americas who
settled the Americas before 10,000 BC, and peoples of other
continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, or Oceania), which occurred before
the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean in 1492. For
practical purposes, travel across the Bering Straits, or the former
land bridge in the same region are excluded.
Only one instance of pre-Columbian European contact – the Norse
settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada c. 1000 AD
– is established beyond reasonable doubt.
Many further forms of pre-Columbian contact have been proposed,
based on historical accounts, archaeological finds, and cultural
comparisons. However, most claims of such contact are controversial
and debated, due in part to much ambiguous or circumstantial
evidence cited by proponents. The scientific responses to
pre-Columbian contact claims range from serious consideration in
peer-reviewed publications to dismissal as fringe science or