Nazca Lines – Landing Strips - Astronaut - Nazca Culture

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nazca Lines Ground Level view

 

 

 

 

The Astronaut

 

 

 

Spiraling Down Water Well

 

 

 

Nazca Lines – Landing Strips - Astronaut - Nazca Culture

 

The Nazca lines are a series of designs and pictographs carved into the ground in the Nazca Desert , a dry plateau located in Peru . They cover an area of some 50 miles, and were supposedly created between 200 BC and 700 AD by the Nazca Indians, who designed them by scraping away the copper colored rocks of the desert floor to expose the lighter-colored earth beneath. The lines have managed to remain intact for hundreds of years thanks to the regions arid climate, which sees it receive little rain or wind throughout the year. Some of the lines span distances of 600 feet, and they depict everything from simple designs and shapes to characterizations of plants, insects, and animals.

The Mystery:

Scientists know who made the Nazca Lines and how they did it, but they still dont know why. The most popular and reasonable hypothesis is that the lines must have figured in the Nazca peoples religious beliefs, and that they made

 the designs as offerings to the gods, who would ve been able to see them from the heavens. Still, other scientists argue that the lines are evidence of massive looms that the Nazcas used to make textiles, and one investigator has even made the preposterous claim that they are the remnants of ancient airfields used by a vanished, technologically advanced society.

 

The possibility of the Theory that the Nazca Animal Figure drawings represent astrological figures?

 

Nazca Lines:

http://www.crystalinks.com/nazca.html

 

Ancient Advanced Technology In Nazca and Peru ( 1Hr :34 mins)

David Hatcher Childress and his investigative team head down the Pan American Highway from Lima to Ica and Nazca. In Ica they investigate the huge elongated alien looking skulls discovered in the area, and then they investigate the strange museum of Dr. Cabrera and its stones depicting dinosaurs and humans.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V34lK5eCaRQ

 

 

What are The Nazca Lines?

http://www.timstouse.com/EarthHistory/nazcalines.htm

 

Nazca Lines - Maria Reiche's theory

She carried out investigations to determine the mathematical unit of measure that was used in the construction…

http://www.go2peru.com/nazca_lines.htm

 

Nazca Lines, Peru

Who drew the lines in the sand? and, How?

http://gosouthamerica.about.com/cs/southamerica/a/PerNazca.htm

 

http://www.go2peru.com/gal_nazca01.htm

 

http://strangeworldofmystery.blogspot.com/2009/08/nazca-lines-peru.html

 

http://www.am-sur.com/am-sur/peru/Nasca/Lineas-mapas-ENGL.html

 

What are The Nazca Lines?

http://www.timstouse.com/EarthHistory/nazcalines.htm

 

     

  The "NEW" Nazca Lines

 

 

 

The NEW Nazca Lines - Discovered in 2007 by Japanese Researcher

Most of the Nasca lines were discovered in the 40's but the last giant picture on the Nazca Plateau in Peru, which is famous for it's giant patterns, was discovered by a team of Japanese researchers in the fall of 2007.

 

The image is 210 feet long, and appears to be an animal with horns, somewhat resembling (of all things) a lobster. It is thought to have been drawn as a symbol of hopes for good crops, but there are no similar patterns elsewhere, and the type of the animal remains unclear. The discovery marks the first time since the 1980s that a picture other than a geometrical pattern has been found on the Nazca Plateau.

The picture was found by a team of researchers including Masato Sakai, an associate professor at Yamagata University, after they analyzed images from a U.S. commercial satellite. They confirmed it was a previously undiscovered picture in a local survey in March this year. It is located at the south of the Nazca Plateau, and apparently went undiscovered since few tourist planes pass over the area.

There is evidence that vehicles had driven in the area, and part of the picture is destroyed.

Two parts of the picture, that appear to be horns, bear close resemblance to those that appear on earthenware dating from 100 B.C. to A.D. 600, during the time when the Nazca kingdom flourished, and it is thought that they relate to fertility rites.

The research team will use images from the advanced land-observing satellite "Daichi," which was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in January this year, to create a distribution map of images on the earth that can be seen from the air.

For years people have been making theories about who made the giant figures, how they were made and especially why they were made. A review of these theories follows.

Perhaps even more interesting than the figures of animals and the zig-zag lines is one unusual image known as "the mandala." This image is extremely remote and sits atop an arid mountain plateau.

 

http://alienufoparanormal.aliencasebook.com/2008/10/06/ancient-peru-pyramid-spotted-by-satellite-in-nazca--plus-the-nazca-lines.aspx


 

 

El Candelabro ( Paracas Trident )

 

 

 

   

El Candelabro ( Paracas Trident )

The Paracas Candelabra, also called the Candelabra of the Andes, is a well-known prehistoric geoglyph found on the northern face of the Paracas Peninsula at Pisco Bay in Peru. Pottery found nearby has been radio carbon dated to

 200 BCE, the time of the Paracas culture. The design is cut two feet into the soil, with stones possibly from a later date placed around it. The figure is 595 feet tall, large enough to be seen 12 miles at sea.

 

It is approximately 595 feet long, and is visible for several miles out to sea. The geoglyph consists of 2-foot-deep

 (0.61 m) trenches carved into the hillside and stones used to mark its edges. Other lines are also carved into the hillside

near it.

 

 

Cahuachi Pyramid

Adobe pyramid at Cahuachi

 

 

 

 

 

 

New remote sensing technology has uncovered a large adobe pyramid near

Peru's Cahuachi desert. Cahuachi is the

site of the Nazca civilization, which slid

into oblivion by the time the Inca Empire

rose to dominate the Andes.
 

 


An aerial view of the Cahuachi Pyramid

complex near Nazca, Peru

 

An Artist’s Reconstruction of the Pyramid Complex at Cahuachi, Peru

 

The image appears to have been carved

with exceptional precision. A large square measures 180 feet across while an inner

circle spans the same diameter. Several smaller squares, about 20 feet wide,

 appear  to have been etched in the landscape along with an assortment

of  stategically placed holes.

 

 

 

Cahuachi Pyramid and Culture - Nazca - Peru

 

Cahuachi, in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture, based from 1 CE to about 500 CE in the coastal area of the Central Andes. It overlooked some of the Nazca lines. The Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici has been excavating at the site for the past few decades . The site contains over 40 mounds topped with adobe structures. The huge architectural complex covers 0.6 sq. miles (1.5 km2). The American archeologist Helaine Silverman has also conducted long term, multi-stage research and written about the full context of Nazca society at Cahuachi, published in a lengthy study in 1993.

Scholars once thought the site was the capital of the Nazca state but have determined that the permanent population was quite small. They believe that it was a pilgrimage center, whose population increased greatly in relation to major ceremonial events. New research has suggested that 40 of the mounds were natural hills modified to appear as artificial constructions. Support for the pilgrimage theory comes from archaeological evidence of sparse population at Cahuachi, the spatial patterning of the site, and ethnographic evidence from the Virgin of Yauca pilgrimage in the nearby Ica Valley.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cahuachi
 

Cahuachi Pyramid Complex – Near Nazca, Peru

Ancient Peru Pyramid Spotted by Satellite - New remote-sensing technology reveals huge structure beneath surface

The discovery doesn’t come as a surprise to archaeologists, since some 40 mounds at Cahuachi are believed to contain the remains of important structures.

“We know that many buildings are still buried under Cahuachi’s sands, but until now, it was almost impossible to exactly locate them and detect their shape from an aerial view,” Masini told Discovery News. - “The biggest problem was the very low contrast between adobe, which is sun-dried earth, and the background subsoil.”

Cahuachi is the best-known site of the Nazca civilization, which flourished in Peru between the first century B.C. and the fifth century A.D. and slid into oblivion by the time the Inca Empire rose to dominate the Andes.


http://lastdaysoftheincas.com/wordpress/?p=236 

 

http://www.turismonazca.com/lugares-nazca.php?q=2

 

 

Cultura Nazca

http://intiyana.com/portal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=110&Itemid=134

 

ANCIENT PERU PYRAMID SPOTTED BY SATELLITE IN NAZCA - PLUS, THE NAZCA LINES

http://alienufoparanormal.aliencasebook.com/2008/10/06/ancient-peru-pyramid-spotted-by-satellite-in-nazca--plus-the-nazca-lines.aspx

 

       

 

Machu Picchu & Cusco  - Other Peruvian Sites & Cultures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A map showing the Inca ruins of Sacsayhuaman just to the right of Cuzco, along with other Inca ruins in the region, including those of Machu Picchu...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Machu Pichu & Cusco  - Inca Wall at Sacsayhuaman, Peru

Sacsayhuamán, the Ancient Inca Fortress Near Cuzco, Peru

 

 

Intihuatana Solar Clock   -  Step Agriculture

 

 

 

Machu Picchu and Cusco, Peru ( 3:23 mins) –( Slide Presentation)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_FCR2BD7EQ

 

Machu Picchu, Cusco - 100 years of its discovery ( 5:27 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LHvHsCAJVvk&feature=related

 

Many detail photos and info of Structures…>>

http://davidpratt.info/andes1.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

MACHU PICCHU  Decoded - The City of the Incas Documentary / NatGeo  ( 52 mins)

A National Geographic documentary about the fascinating and mysterious pre-Columbian Inca lost city of Machu Picchu. Deep in the Andean mountains lays a mysterious ruin named Machu Picchu. For 400 years it sat abandoned on its misty cliff, the quintessential lost city in the jungle. Rediscovered in 1911, it contained no written records or carvings, nothing that could shed light on its history. For a century since, it has defied the endless scores of visitors and scientists who attempted to understand its purpose. Who were the mysterious people who built it and why did they build it here? Today an international team of archeologists, engineers and scientists are finally piecing together the clues. Together they are discovering astonishing new burials, revealing the intricacies of its ingenious engineering and finally decoding the secrets of Machu Picchu.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJv0_Oz59W4 

 

Machu Picchu  Decoded - National Geographic - Pt 1/04 -  ( 14 mins)

(Subtitulos en Español )

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaMI0bMwq_Q 

 

 

Intihuatana

 

 

 

 

 

Intihuatana  - Solar Calendar - Machu Picchu, Peru

 

http://www.inkas.com/tours/cuzco_machu_picchu/santillan_photos.html

 

 

 

Sun Temple at Pisac

 

 

 

 

 

Sun Ceremonial Temple at Pisac - Machu Picchu, Peru

 

  

 

There are many ceremonial temples and sites at Machu Pichhu. The Temple of the Sun was used to honor and celebrate Inti, the Sun, an important Incan deity. When the sun of the winter solstice enters through the central window, it falls directly on the large ceremonial stone. The round building protects the stone.

 

 

Moray

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moray
The ruins at Moray are circular stone terraces that were built into existing natural craters in the earth. They were originally built in pre-Inca times, maybe as long ago as 1000 AD. The natural earth formations have a huge variety of temperatures, depending on the depth and where the sun and shadows fall. One scientist recorded a full 15C (27F) degrees temperature difference between the top and bottom terraces, which is only 30 feet! For this reason, historians believe quite certainly that these terraces were used for agriculture experimentation, sort of like a natural greenhouse. They believe that pre-Incans used this site to develop different strains of Maize (corn), allowing them transform maize into a high-altitude crop, thereby allowing the ancient civilizations to thrive in the Andes mountains.

 

Excellent Photos !!!!!

http://www.inkas.com/tours/cuzco_machu_picchu/santillan_photos.html

 

 

Inca Ollantaytambo City

 

 

 

 

Highly preserved Inca Ruins near Ollantaytambo.

 

 

 

 

 

Inca Ollantaytambo City - Peru

 

 

 

http://davidpratt.info/andes2.htm

 

Inca  Storehouses  Ollantaytambo Granaries




The Incas built several storehouses (Quechua: qollqa) out of fieldstones on the hills surrounding Ollantaytambo. Their location at high altitudes, where there is more wind and lower temperatures, defended their contents against decay. To enhance this effect, the Ollantaytambo qollqas feature ventilation systems. It is believed that they were used to store the production of the agricultural terraces built around the site. Grain would be poured in the windows on the uphill side of each building, then emptied out through the downhill side window

 

 

 

 

Niches carved into the solid rock

at Ollantaytambo.

 

 

Temple of the Sun, Ollantaytambo, Sacred Valley, Peru

 

The guide pointed his finger to a former quarry site in the mountains that were carried from the quarry to the temple ruins.

How did the people of Incas bring those rocks which weighed 50 tons across the river to the temple?

 

 

Ollantaytambo Architecture - Wall of the Six Monoliths

 

At the northern end of the Sacred Valley, Ollantaytambo is rare if not unique in Peru.
Ollantaytambo is a massive citadel located 50 kilometers from Machu Picchu. The citadel served as both a temple and a fortress. At some time unknown, and for reasons unknown, work mysteriously stopped on this huge project.

 

It's one of the most monumental architectural complex of the ancient inca Empire, commonly called 'Fortress' due to its enormous walls, was actually a Tambo or city-hosting, located strategically to dominate the Sacred Valley. The architectural type used, as well as the quality of each stone worked individually, make Ollantaytambo a peculiar and amazing artworks made the ancient Peruvians, especially the Temple of the Sun and its gigantic monoliths.

 

Cachiccata/ Kachiqhata Canterras (Incan Rock Quarry)

From Ollantaytambo - down to the Urubamba river and crossing over the bridge - and then up the other side into Cachiccata.

The main quarries of Ollantaytambo were located at Kachiqhata, in a ravine across the Urubamba River some 5 kilometers from the town. The site features three main quarrying areas: Mullup'urku, Kantirayoq, and Sirkusirkuyoq; all of them provided blocks of rose rhyolite for the elaborate buildings of the Temple Hill. An elaborate network of roads, ramps, and slides connected them with the main building areas
 

The most amazing tale is that these stones were quarried in a site located in a hill side across the river, and both locations are a very high altitude from the river’s bed. – That means that these gigantic stones had to be transported down a steep hillside, across the river, and then up the other steep hillside to the site location.!!!!

 

The “Wheel” and the un-finished rock cutting - at the Cachiccata Rock Quarry
 

 

The Sacred Valley of the Incas

 

 

 

 

The Sacred Valley of the Incas, Cusco, Peru

The Sacred Valley of the Incas or Urubamba Valley is a valley in the Andes of Peru, close to the Inca capital of Cusco and below the ancient sacred city of Machu Picchu, it encompasses the heartland of the Inca Empire


 

The Sacred Valley of the Incas , it has been formed by the Urubamba River, also known as Vilcanota River or Wilcamayu, means the Sacred River, in Quechua.- It was undoubtedly a key area of settlement to the Incas. Its agreeable climate and fertile plains make a rare and fruitful combination for the high Andes. It was also the route to the jungle and therefore an area with access to the fruits and plants of the tropical lowlands. The Sacred Valley served as a buffer zone, protecting Cusco from incursions of the Antis, the fierce jungle tribes who from time to time raided the highlands. The early Incas may have come from Wimpillay as their mummies had been discovered there

The War Against Time The Secrets Of The Incas ( 46 mins)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JCW35nSeLP0&feature=relmfu

 

The Urubamba Valley - (Many good Details of the Area)

http://www.phfawcettsweb.org/urubam.htm

 

 

Inca Trail Ruins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inca Trail

 

 

Inca Trail Ruins
http://www.allaboutperutravel.com/peru-inca-trail-highlights.htm 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coricancha -  Puma Punku

 

 

The wonderfully carved granite walls of the temple were covered with more than 700 sheets of pure gold, weighing around two kilograms each;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The walls and floors were once covered in sheets of solid gold.

 

 

Coricancha - Cuzco - Peru

 

The Coricancha or Qorikancha[1] (from the Quechua words Quri Kancha meaning "Golden Temple"), originally named Inti Kancha ("Temple of the Sun") or Inti Wasi ("Sun House"), was the most important temple in the Inca Empire, dedicated primarily to Inti, the Sun God. It was one of the most revered temples of the capital city of Cusco.

The walls and floors were once covered in sheets of solid gold, and its adjacent courtyard was filled with golden statues. Spanish reports tell of its opulence that was "fabulous beyond belief". When the Spanish required the Inca to raise a ransom in gold for the life of the leader Atahualpa, most of the gold was collected from Coricancha.[2]

The Spanish colonists built the Church of Santo Domingo on the site, demolishing the temple and using its foundations for the cathedral. Construction took most of a century. This is one of numerous sites where the Spanish incorporated Inca stonework into the structure of a colonial building. Major earthquakes severely damaged the church, but the Inca stone walls, built out of huge, tightly-interlocking blocks of stone, still stand due to their sophisticated stone masonry. Nearby is an underground archaeological museum, which contains numerous interesting pieces, including mummies, textiles, and sacred idols from the site. The site now also includes the Church and Convent of Santo Domingo.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coricancha

 

Templo del Sol - The Temple of Coricancha

 

 

A combination of Inca and Spanish architecture at the Coricancha
http://www.rediscovermachupicchu.com/cuzco.htm 


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coricancha

 

Elongated Skulls at the Museum of Coricancha "

 

Museo de Sitio del Koricancha" (Archaeological Museum of the Koricancha)


Exhibition of the collection of archaeological Inca and pre-Inca pieces found in the excavations carried out in the "Templo de Koricancha" (Temple of Koricancha). Located next to the Church of Santo Domingo - El Sol Avenue.

http://www.cusco-peru.info/museums_cusco.htm

 

 

 

 

Advanced Machine Drilling Techniques

 

 

Advanced Alien Technology

 

 

 

 

 

 Inca World: Proof of Precision Tools Used By "Primitive" Incas?  ( 2 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=7HOe3GDdRgw

 

A perfectly drilled block at the Coricancha - Cuzco

 

Surreal Ancient Technology In Cuzco Peru ( 7 mins)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Duyf1ol31Bs

 

How much proof do you need ? Advanced Alien Technology (  7 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipuVjnOLZC8

 

http://davidpratt.info/andes2.htm

‘Inca’ Stonemasonry


This stone block has a 6 mm wide groove containing drilled holes. It could not have been made with stone or copper tools. The diameter of the small holes varies by no more than 0.1 mm. Since the rock is brittle, it must have been drilled with a tool fixed on a mount, as any wobbling would have left visible traces.

CUSCO ANCIENT PRE 10000BC ADVANCED MACHINE DRILLING & ARCHITECTURE ( 3 mins)

- A 2.5 Ft. Long Hole Drilling, with no modern tools…
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhgKUevwpx4&feature=player_embedded

 


 

 

Large Elongated Human Skulls - Peru

 

 

Large Elongated Human Skulls - Peru & Egypt - Similarities

 

 

The Enigma of Cranial Deformation: Elongated Skulls of the Ancients
By: David Hatcher Childress & Brien Foerster

 

 

Large Elongated Human Skulls - Peru & Egypt

 

Cranial deformation causing elongated human skulls was a world-wide phenomenon found in areas such as ancient Iraq, Malta, Melanesia (specifically near Vanuatu), Russia, North and South America, and possibly Egypt during the Amarna period, during the time of Akhenaten and Tutankhamen, but the latter is hotly debated by scholars. In terms of time period, we are looking at roughly between 4000 BC and 300 AD. The deformation process was usually begun when a child was very young, perhaps soon after birth, and continued until complete calcification of the skull was complete.[1] Most academics believe that this was achieved by the binding of the skull with cords and flat wooden boards. The last examples of people to perform this were in the Congo of Africa by the Mangbetu people and the Vanuatu natives in the latter part of the 19th century.

However, some cultures of Peru offer other possible examples of this, and even the possibility that individuals were born with elongated crania. An amazing detailed sketch, made by Johan Jakob von Tschudi, and published in a book he co-authored with Mariano E. Rivera in 1851 called Peruvian Antiquities shows a human fetus with a huge elongated skull.[2] The fetus was labeled as Inca, but it's exact location was not revealed by Tschudi. Interestingly, since no portraits of the Inca were ever made prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 1532, we honestly don't know what they looked like, taking into consideration as well, that a brutal civil war which preceded the Spanish Conquest, probably in 1531 resulted in the vast majority of the royal Inca family to have been slaughtered; as much as 90% of them.[3]

Other cultures of the area who had elongated crania, based on archaeological findings, include the Tiwanaku of the south end of Lake Titicaca, and the Paracas of the Peruvian coast. Proposed Nazca (Nasca) culture elongated skulls were in fact the Paracas people, who existed in that territory prior to the Nazca. In fact, the world famous Nazca geoglyph animal figures were most likely not Nazca creations, but those of the Paracas people ...

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elongated_human_skulls

 

Giorgio A. Tsoukalos on the Nazca Lines & Elongated Skulls ( 5 mins)

 

As usual, the explanation of the mainstream archeologists on the Nazca Lines, is that they may be "ceremonial paths with religious purposes". The question is that entire mountain chains were completely bulldozed, thousands of years ago, to allow these huge lines that only are seen from the skies and totally look like landing tracks. Actually there's a web of interconnected tracks in the Andes of Peru, resembling a huge ancient airport and whoever built them, surely had full heavy logistic.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPXJB12iXls&feature=player_embedded

 

Enormous Cone Head Of Paracas Peru: Lost Human History Returns ( 6 mins)

 

 ...along with David Hatcher Childress and Hugh Newman from 'Ancient Aliens' on a unique tour around Peru and Bolivia in October/November 2013 where we will be comparing Egyptian and Peruvian megalithic technology, plus visiting all the major sites, temples and museums, plus we will be seeing and examining about 50 of these enigmatic skulls.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnERUZNqwbc

 

Elongated Cone Heads Of Paracas Peru: Facial Reconstruction  ( 3 mins)

 

Stars of 'Ancient Aliens' BRIEN FOERSTER and HUGH NEWMAN on a unique tour around Peru and Bolivia in October/November 2013, plus we'll be seeing around 50 of these enigmatic skulls.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXHU0rl-we8

 

http://www.richardcassaro.com/tag/egyptians 

 

 

Walls of Sacsayhuaman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sacsayhuaman - Near Machu Pucchu - Peru

It lies at an elevation of nearly 12,000 feet

 

Sacsayhuaman is an Inca "fortress", very famous for its stone blocks (some weigh several dozens of tons) so well fitted (without using any mortar) that it's almost impossible to put a needle in between. The fortifications that surrounded Cuzco, the Inca capital, were there to protect and reinforce the Inca's control. - We are really stupefied by these three gigantic walls, arranged in zigzag levels.

The presence of a ceremonial center on the top makes us think that it could have been more a temple than a fortress! In fact, how could anybody explain this defense lines so massive... against slings, arcs and arrows (and when you think about the technical feat you need to have to carry all these blocks!)
This structure has resisted all these years, in spite of several earthquakes.

Not far from the famous Inca city of Machu Picchu lies Sacsayhuaman, a strange embankment of stone walls located just outside of Cuzco. The series of three walls was assembled from massive 200-ton blocks of rock and limestone, and they are arranged in a zigzag pattern along the hillside. The longest is roughly 1000 feet in length and each stands some fifteen feet tall. The monument is in astonishingly good condition for its age, especially considering the regions propensity for earthquakes, but the tops of the walls are somewhat demolished, as the monument was plundered by the Spanish to build churches in Cuzco . The area surrounding the monument has been found to be the source of several underground catacombs called chincanas, which were supposedly used as connecting passageways to other Inca structures in the area.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacsayhuam%C3%A1n

 

Panorama of Sacsayhuamán with the city of Cusco in the background

 

 
Walls of Sacsayhuaman - Aerial View                                                     Satellite image of Walls

 

 Sacsayhuaman - Aerial View with  Muyucmarca Circle Structure

 

http://blog.world-mysteries.com/mystic-places/lost-ancient-technology/

 

The Mystery:

Most scientists agree that Sacsayhuaman served as a kind of fortress of barrier wall, but this has been disputed. The strange shape and angles of the wall have led some speculate that it may have had a more symbolic function, one example being that the wall, when seen next to Cuzco from above, forms the shape of the head of a Cougar. Even more mysterious than the monuments use, though, are the methods that were used in its construction. Like most Inca stone works, Sacsayhuaman was built with large stones that fit together so perfectly that not even a sheet of paper can be placed in the gaps between them. Just how the Incas managed such expert placements, or, for that matter, how they managed to transport and lift the heavy hunks of stone, is still not fully known.
http://www.travelermania.com/traveler-chit-chat/top-10-mysterious-world-landmarks/

Puca Pucara
http://www.delange.org/PucaPucara/PucaPucara.htm
 

 

Muyucmarca - Espalda de
Sacsayhuamán

 

 

 

 

 

Muyuqmarka

 

Garcilaso wrote that on the top of the three "walls" or "bulwarks" there were three strong towers disposed in a triangle. The main tower was in the middle and had a circular shape, it was named as Moyoc Marca (Muyuq Marka), the second one was named as Paucar Marca, and the third Sacllar Marca (Sallaq Marka); the last two ones were rectangular.

This is the remaining base of a tower discovered in 1934 at the top of the Temple of Sacsayhuaman. The Muyuqmarka consists of three concentric, circular stone walls connected by a series of radial walls. There are three channels constructed to bring water into what many scientists consider to be a reservoir. A web-like pattern of 34 lines intersects at the center and also there is a pattern of concentric circles that corresponded to the location of the circular walls.
http://www.world-mysteries.com/mpl_9.htm
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rodadero Hill and the Throne of the Incas

In the outskirts of Cusco, exactly opposite to Sacsayhuaman is Rodadero, a giant rock hill with numerous stairwells and benches carved into the rock.

 

Rodadero hill is made up of diorite rock of igneous origin, where you can find waterways, carved rocks and what has been revealed to be the so-called throne of the Incas that is accessed by a series of precisely carved stairs. Behind this section there are small labyrinths, tunnels and vaulted niches in the walls.

 

http://www.world-mysteries.com/mpl_9.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sayhuiti-Rumihuasi - Machu Picchu Large Carved Stone

http://worldneighborsjourneytoperu.blogspot.com/2010_05_01_archive.html
 

 

 

 

 

 

The Caral pyramids in the arid Supe Valley, some 20 km from the Pacific coast.

 

 

 

Caral: The Oldest Town (and Pyramids) - in the New World

Sometime before 3200 BC, if not 3500 BC, something happened in the Norte Chico in Peru, an agronomical no-go area, where hardly anything grows. This, however, is the site where the oldest traces of a “genuine civilisation” – pyramids included – were found in America. They had agriculture in near-by rivers, and trade with near and far.

Here, at least 25 large ceremonial/residential sites have so far been found, of which Caral has become the most famous. The North Chico, roughly 100 km north of the Peruvian capital Lima, consists of four narrow river valleys, from south to north, the Huaura, Supe, Pativilca, and Fortaleza. The ancient pyramids of Caral predate the Inca civilisation by 4000 years, but were flourishing a century before the pyramids of Gizeh. No surprise therefore that they have been identified as the most important archaeological discovery since the discovery of Machu Picchu in 1911.

http://www.philipcoppens.com/caral.html

Radiocarbon readings at this city gives a start around 2627 B.C. at times of the Great Giza Pyramids; only surpassed by a small sunken plaza temple at Sechin barely 150 km north of Caral, it gives a surprisingly date parallel to late Egyptian pre dynastic Naqada I period (4400-3500). ( Older than “Casma” nearby.)

http://www.rediscovering-america.com/Caral%20Peru%20a%204600%20years%20old%20American%20Pyramids%20Palaces%20Conglomerate.html

http://digitaljournal.com/article/314935

 



BBC - The lost Pyramids of Caral - Subtitles in Portuguese ( 49 mins)

Thousands of years ago, people left the countryside for the first time and formed the civilization. They would build huge monuments like the pyramids and all the great cities of the ancient world. But why did it? What forces gave rise to civilization? For years, archaeologists have tried to go back in time to when everything started to discover the answer. And now, finally, seems to have succeeded, because they are exploring a lost city of pyramids in Peru. He has nearly five thousand years old. And the story that shows why we started this great journey is more remarkable than anyone ever expected.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbjZ3cpvlGY 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Archeological Complex of Kalasaya or Pucará

Ceremonial center of the Pucara culture, which reached its peak between 250 B.C. and 380 A.D., the complex was built around 200 RC. Near Puno. Two sectors can be distinguished: a ceremonial area composed by nine pyramids, and an urban zone By the ancient dwellers of the Altiplano and of lake Titicaca.


   

 

"Huacas" Adobe Brick Pyramids – Lima

 

The Archaeological Complex Huaca Pucllana

 

The Adobe Pyramid Huallamarca
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Huacas" Adobe Brick Pyramids – Lima

Everyone has seen photos and movies featuring the Egyptian pyramids constructed of massive 2-ton limestone blocks. But what if you want to build a pyramid and don't have large stones nearby? Lima, Peru has eight-story high "Huacas" - Pyramids constructed of adobe bricks.

In ancient Peru, a "huaca" or "wak'a" (Quecha meaning for sacred) is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind. The term huaca can refer to natural sites like massive rocks, trees or rivers, or to men made monuments. Some Huacas have been built especially for worshiping and rituals, others for administrative purposes. Along the Peruvian coast the term "huaca" usually refers to pre-Hispanic burial and cultural sites of indigenous Peruvians in the shape of a pyramid made with Adobe bricks (bricks made of sand, clay, straw, animal excrements or other fibrous materials).

 

 

During restoration/preservation work there, archaeologists have recently found

several intact "mummy bundles"of a woman and her three children

HUACA PUCLLANA (pre-Inca Lima culture) ( 5 mins)

Many civilisations preceded the incas, here ione of the man known als RIMA hence the name Lima in Hispanic tongue. A most nteresting and rich culture that could not withstand drought caused by El Niño phenomenon wich caused the demis of so many other cultures like the Mochica and Chimu and Caral.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HDOKWoUC-f0&feature=related 

 

Moche Culture

 

Moche - Pyramid of the Sun

 

Aerial photograph of Moche (Mochica) royal pre-Columbian tomb excavation at Sipan, Lambayeque Valley, Northern Peru. The key royal figures are called warrior priests or the Lord of Sipan.

 

Gold Moche Art
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moche Culture

Two thousand years ago, while the Roman Empire was expanding its influence in Europe , the Moche people in Peru were developing a remarkable civilisation. The Moche lived along a 250-mile stretch of Peru northern coastline in a series of fertile valleys with rivers flowing from the Andes . Their civilisation flourished from about A.D 100 to 800.

Each of the valleys contained large ceremonial centres with pyramids and palaces. The massive structure of the Pyramid of the Sun rose 13 feet above the Moche Valley and covered more than 12 acres, almost as large an area as that of the Great Pyramid at Giza in Egypt . It was the largest man made structure on the South American continent.

Royal complexes such as this were surrounded by large settlements of up to 10,000 people. These high-density population centres were sustained by elaborate irrigation canals that channelled the mountain runoff and turned the dry desert valleys into rich agricultural land.

The Moche people developed sophisticated artistic traditions in ceramics, metallurgy and textile production. Moche potters created hundreds of exceptional ceramic vessels. With remarkable skill, they produced pottery by making ceramics in molds. Artists painted some of the vessels with lively scenes of Moche life, and thus, although the Moche had no written language, their ceramics allow researchers today to learn about their complex culture. The painted scenes depict warfare, ritual sacrifice of prisoners and ceremonies involving a wealthy class of nobles.

In metallurgy, too, the Moche excelled. They fashioned sheets of precious metals into large ornaments and used lost-wax casting to create intricate pieces, some with movable parts. Skilled technicians created metal alloys using gold, silver and copper, and they developed a method of electroplating gold onto copper, many centuries before the discovery of electricity.
http://www.parallelozero.com/visual_rep.php?cod=160

http://www.jacksbromeliads.com/incacivilizations.htm

Moche Civilization – Art ( 3 mins)

Moche civilization's (northen Peru) potteries were really unique
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FNk-Uy7gU-A

La Civilización Perdida del Perú: Los Moches - Parte 1/6 - DocuHistory BBC

( 9 mins)

La cultura Moche o mochica es una cultura del Antiguo Perú que se desarrolló entre los 300 AC a los 700 DC.
Esta cultura alcanzó un amplio conocimiento en ingeniería hidráulica. Así lo manifiesta la construcción de canales. Donde aprovecharon al máximo las aguas de los ríos para la irrigación de sus tierras. Esto les permitió contar con excedentes agrícolas y una sólida economía para su desarrollo. Caracterizándose también por hacer un uso intensivo del cobre en la fabricación de armas, herramientas y objetos ornamentales.
Fueron considerados los mejores ceramistas del Perú antiguo gracias al fino y elaborado trabajo que realizaron en sus cerámicos. En ellos representaron a divinidades, hombres, animales y escenas significativas referidas a temas ceremoniales y mitos que reflejaban su concepción del mundo, destacándose la asombrosa expresividad, perfección y realismo con que los dotaban.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWlwZEEg92c&feature=related 

 

 

The Lord of Sipan

 

Lord of Sipan... King Tutankhamen of

the Americas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Lord of Sipan

The Lord of Sipan reigned at approximately 200 A.D.


The Lord of Sipan was revealed to the world in 1987. He reigned in approximately 200 A.D. and died about 40 years of age. Sipan is located in the northern part of Peru, close to the coast, in the middle of Lambayeque Valley, 35 Kms. at east of Chiclayo. Four tombs have been found in Sipan's Huaca Rajada, the huaca is a mausoleum built by the Moche culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru from the time of Christ to 700 AD, centuries prior to the Incas.

It has been dubbed “The Golden Wonder” by Times magazine, and National Geographic has published an article named “Discovering the Richest Tomb in the New World”. It represents, without a doubt, the most important archaeological finding of recent times, and the collection has traveled throughout the world in a series of impressive expos in Europe, the USA and Japan.

Sipan's treasures show us the Moche culture's ability with several metals: gold, silver, copper and precious stones in fine quality and a mastery in metallurgy unrivaled in the Americas: masks, necklaces, earrings and other elaborate jewelry.

The Moche treasures are exhibited in the Bruning Museum in the city of Lambayeque, only a few miles from Chiclayo. The city also has a fascinating herb market, with all the natural remedies used by the regions's traditional healers.

http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php?t=31120

Lord of Sipan (Señor de Sipan) died around 1770 years ago. – the “King Tutankhamen of the Americas”.

The grand lord of Moche civilization - one of Peru's most important pre-Hispanic civilizations - was a warrior, half god, half man, a noble. A lord over the lords of his time. He lived for about 40 years and was 1.67 meters (5.5 ft.) tall.

He was buried in a wooden sarcophagus - - itself a first in the Americas - with his head pointing south, his nose and ears covered with gold relics and his feet clad in silver, surrounded by a profusion of objects in cooper, spondyllus shells and semiprecious stones.

Explora Films - The Lord of Sipan ( 7 mins)

This documentary deals with the Moche culture, which developed on the northern coast of Peru, between 100 BC and 600 AC. It is a fairly unknown culture that disappeared after reaching its peak. A Great Lord who governed and was buried with great honors, so that his message would endure in time, and a man, an archaeologist named Walter Alva, who rescued him from his tomb to fulfill his plan of the past. Today, everyone has heard of the Moches, thanks to the discoveries made during the last two decades. The finds continue, however, and the splendor of this unique civilization still surprises the world.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM04wP_ep_Y 

 

The Royal Tombs of Sipán Museum - Lambayeque -  Peru

http://www.go2peru.com/peru_guide/chiclayo/sipan_museum.htm

 

 

Chan Chan – Peru

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chan Chan – Peru

 

Built by the kingdom of Chimú around 850 AD, Chan Chan was the largest Pre-Columbian city in South America before being conquered by the Inca Empire in 1570 AD. It was the imperial capital of the Chimor and was home to an estimated 30,000 people.

There are 4 main archaeological sites around Trujillo relating to the city of Chan Chan and the Chimú empire, but the most interesting was definitely the principal complex, known as the Tschudi Palace.

The largest Pre-Columbian city in South America, Chan Chan is an archaeological site located in the Peruvian region of La Libertad, five km west of Trujillo. Chan Chan covers an area of approximately 20 km² and had a dense urban center of about 6km². Chan Chan was constructed by the Chimor (the kingdom of the Chimú), a late intermediate period civilization which grew out of the remnants of the Moche civilization. The vast adobe city of Chan Chan was built by the Chimu around AD 850 and lasted until its conquest by the Inca Empire in AD 1470. It was the imperial capital of the Chimor until it was conquered in the 15th century. It is estimated that around 30,000 people lived in the city of Chan Chan.

 

 

Documental sobre Chan Chan  ( 6 mins)

 

Documental sobre Chan Chan elaborado por los estudiantes de la Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicacion de la UNT.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mOVNMQshDQI

 

 

Huaca Arco Iris

 

 

Restored walls of the Huaco Arco Iris,

a pyramid and temple in Trujillo. Patterns

said to symbolise rain and fertility on the restored walls of the Huaco Arco Iris,

a pyramid and temple in Trujillo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peruvian Archaeologists find 17 Anthropomorphic 500-year-old wood statuettes.

Chan Chan Peru: The Largest Adobe City In The World ( 5 MINS)

The giant adobe city complex near Trujillo, Peru. Built by the Chimu culture, it housed more than 100,000 people. The Inca conquered and absorbed them in the 1400s.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vL01IEYZfGs

Chan Chan, Peru - Slides ( 3 mins)

The largest Pre-Columbian city in South America, Chan Chan is an archaeological site located in the Peruvian region of La Libertad, five km west of Trujillo. Chan Chan covers an area of approximately 20 km² and had a dense urban center of about 6km². Chan Chan was constructed by the Chimor (the kingdom of the Chimú), a late intermediate period civilization which grew out of the remnants of the Moche civilization. The vast adobe city of Chan Chan was built by the Chimu around AD 850 and lasted until its conquest by the Inca Empire in AD 1470. It was the imperial capital of the Chimor until it was conquered in the 15th century. It is estimated that around 30,000 people lived in the city of Chan Chan.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avXKfEHZNNo&feature=related 



Peru Ciudadela de Chan Chan – Video w Music Trujillo ( 5 mins)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxYyN2T_Ap8&feature=related

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trujillo -  Temple of the Sun & Moon, Chan-Chan & Huanchaco ??

http://www.southamerica.travel/Peru-Tours/Northern_Peru_Tours/Trujillo-Chiclayo-Cajamarca.html

 

 

http://www.mentecomunal.net/posts/turismo/13748/Chan-Chan-cultura-del-antiguo-Per-.html

http://peterlacey.blogspot.com/2011/06/trujillo-huanchaco.html

 

 

Tschudi Palace Entrance at Chan Chan

Ruins  in Trujillo, Peru
 

 

The adobe grounds were said to house

500 to 1,000 noble people and came

 complete with a huge courtyard,

incredibly detailed wall designs,

ceremonial tombs, guard posts and

an impressive irrigation system.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Temple of the Sun

 

 

Pachacamac Pyramid

 

 

 

Temple main entrance.

 

 

Model showing the pre-inca temple complex of Pachacamac

 

 

Pachacamac

Located on a desert bluff, Pachacamac has panoramic views of the Pacific Ocean on one side, and a view of the foothills of the Andes on the other. The location made it one of the principal religious centers of pre-Columbian Lima. Until the Spaniards arrived in Lima in the 1530s, Pachacamac was the home of the most powerful Incan oracle on Peru's central coast.

The temple of Pachacamac is an archaeological site 40 km southeast of Lima, Peru in the Valley of the Lurín River. Most of the common buildings and temples were built c. 800-1450 CE, shortly before the arrival and conquest by the Inca Empire.

To date, several pyramids have been uncovered; archaeologists have identified at least 17 pyramids (many of them irreversibly damaged by the El Niño weather phenomenon). Besides pyramids, the site had a cemetery and multicolored fresco of fish from the Early Intermediate period (c. 200-600 CE). Later, the Huari (c. 600-800 CE) constructed the city, probably using it as an administrative center. A number of Huari-influenced designs appear on the structures and on the ceramics and textiles found in the cemeteries of this period. After the collapse of the Huari empire, Pachacamac continued to grow as a religious center. The majority of the common architecture and temples were built during this stage (c. 800-1450 CE).

By the time the Tawantinsuyu (Inca Confederacy) invaded the area, the valleys of the Rímac and Lurín had a small state which the people called Ichma., They used Pachacamac primarily as a religious site for the veneration of the Pacha Kamaq, the creator god. The Ichma joined the Incan Empire, which used Pachacamac as an important administrative center.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachacamac

 

 

     j

 

Pachacamac- God of the earth. Considered the creator god by the peoples who lived in Peru before the Inca conquest.

Idol Totem

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pachacamac Ancient Art


http://www.arqueologiadelperu.com.ar/pch.htm 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raqchi Archaeological Complex  - Near Cuzco / Puno - Peru


The Raqchi archaeological complex (also called Cacha) is centered around the ruins of a magnificent temple erected by the Incas, according to the chronicler Betanzos in honor of the god Kon Tici Viracocha Pachayachachic. Garcilazo claimed that the temple was built by Inca Wiracocha and that it contains an extraordinary quantity of gold. Cieza de Leon states that Inca Yupanqui was responsible for the construction of the great living quarters. What is certain is that the temple is a masterpiece of architecture in stone and mud. It is 92 meters long by 25 wide and has two entrances. There is an impressive central wall 12 meters high with its lower courses of stone and upper ones of adobe. This wall has ten interior passages. The stones bear the remains of a unique form of decoration: religious symbols such as the chakana are picked out in colors from the shape of the stones themselves. On either side if the wall can be seen the bases of 22 cylindrical columns - also unique - supporting an adobe construction.

In addition to the temple, the complex contains living quarters for the Inca nobles and a half-moon shaped artificial lake, also built by the Incas. The Inca Trail from Collasuyo crosses the site and disappears towards the south, cutting through a large protective wall surrounding Raqchi. The large colcas or food stores to the east are also impressive, as is a ceremonial area close to the springs where those entering the temple were purified beforehand.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sillustani and Amaru Muru:

Sillustani is where we will see the burial Chullpa, or stone towers that most guides say the Inca built, but they are mistaken. The finest examples are also the oldest, made by a mysterious pre-Inca culture. Were they tombs? No…they were very sophisticated acoustic and meditative chambers.


http://hiddenincatours.com/titicaca-and-tiwanaku/

 

 

 

Holes vary between 6-7 feet deep

 

 

 

 

Band of Holes near Pisco Valley, Peru

 

The "Band of Holes" consists of approximately 6,900 unexplained man-sized holes carved into the barren rock near Pisco Valley, Peru on a plain called Cajamarquilla. It dates back to ancient times and remain a mystery much like neighboring Nazca Lines and Machu Piccu best appreciated from the air and satellite imagery.

 

http://www.crystalinks.com/bandofholes.html

 

 

 

The Aqueduct is about five miles in length.

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-Incan Aqueduct 1500 B.C at Cumbe Mayo - Peru

 

Cumbe Mayo is located about 12 miles (19 km) southwest of the Peruvian city of Cajamarca, at an elevation of approximately 11,000 feet (3,300 meters). The location is best known for the ruins of a Pre-Incan aqueduct stretching approximately five miles in length. The aqueduct collected water from the Atlantic watershed and redirected it on its way to the Pacific Ocean. It is thought to have been constructed around 1500 B.C. and was once thought to be the oldest existing man-made structure in South America. The name Cumbe Mayo may be derived from a Quechua phrase, kumpi mayu, meaning “well-made water channel,” or humpi mayo, meaning “thin river.”

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumbe_Mayo

 

Some of the petraglyphs found at Cumbe Mayo

 

Cumbe Mayo is filled will undecyphered petraglyphs, incredible aqueducts, stone forest, and caves. It is an often overlooked and understudied archeological site that deserves much more attention than it recieves.

 

 

 

 

 

Archaeological sites in Peru  >>>>>!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Names - Locations - Dates - Links....

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeological_sites_in_Peru



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Fortress of Kuelap or Cuélap (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Perú),

The fortress of Kuelap or Cuélap (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Perú), associated with the Chachapoyas culture, consists of massive exterior stone walls containing more than four hundred buildings. The structure, situated on a ridge overlooking the Utcubamba Valley in northern Peru, is roughly 600 meters in length and 110 meters in width. It could have been built to defend against the Huari or other hostile peoples however evidence of these hostile groups at the site is minimal. Radiocarbon dating samples show that construction of the structures started in the 6th century AD and occupied until the Early Colonial period (1532-1570), however through the pre-Columbian, conquest and colonial periods we have only the four brief references to Kuelap. In lieu of newly discovered documents, there exists no other testimony concerning the site until 1843.
 

 

 

The Thirteen Towers constitute an ancient solar observatory
 

 

Thirteen Towers at Chanquillo

 

Sun Worshiping Circle

 

 

Chanquillo, Peru – Ancient Solar Calendar

Ancient Solar Observatory Discovered

The America’s oldest astronomical observatory

Chankillo (Chanquillo) was built as a fortified temple complex over 2,300 years ago in the coastal desert of Peru, near the Casma-Sechín river basin. The monumental complex was constructed from cut stone and includes a fortified temple, a plaza, and 13 towers, which are now thought to be an astronomical observatory. Excavations at Chankillo have indicated that the site was occupied sometime between the mid-fourth century B.C. and the early first century A.D. for a relatively short period of time and was subsequently abandoned, most likely due to violent conflict. - Recent archaeoastronomical investigations suggest that the site was partly created to observe the movement of the sun through the solar year, solstice to solstice.

Chankillo (Chanquillo) was identified as an observatory in 2007, creating greater interest in the site. Strong winds, humidity, temperature fluctuations, and earthquakes have caused erosion, loss of mortar, and weakening of stone masonry to the historic elements of the site. As a result, stones have cracked and fallen out, causing structural instability and the gradual collapse of walls.

Thirteen Towers at Chankillo (Chanquillo)

Chankillo's astronomical feature is a line of thirteen cubic stone blocks, called the Thirteen Towers, arranged along the ridge of a low hill. The line runs due north/south, but the southern-most towers are slightly skewed to the southwest. The blocks vary in size, from 75 to 125 meters square and 2-6 meters in height, but they are regularly spaced at intervals between 4.7 and 5.1 meters. Each tower has a pair of inset staircases leading to the summits.

The site where the towers are based is about four square kilometres (1.5 square miles) in size, and is believed to be a ceremonial centre that was occupied in the 4th Century BC. It is based at the coast of Peru in the Casma-Sechin River Basin and contains many buildings and plazas, as well as a fortified temple that has attracted much attention.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Solar Calendar

 

 

Chanquillo, Peru – Ancient Solar Calendar

Prof Brian Cox visits Chankillo solar calendar in Peru – BBC - VIDEO ( 3 mins)


Professor Brian Cox has visited a giant desert solar calendar in Peru in his quest to understand the nature of time in creating and ending the universe. The 2,500-year-old solar calendar in Chankillo was built by a civilization of which very little is known.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12619455

The oldest solar observatory in the Americas has been found, suggesting the existence of early, sophisticated Sun cults, scientists report.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6408231.stm
 

 

Peruvian Ica Stones

 

 

 

Nazca lines on an Ica stone.
 

 

 

Peruvian Ica Stones


A very unique time-capsule of images is housed in a warehouse in Ica, Peru. Here are some 20,000 stone boulders, tablets, and baseball-sized rocks, decorated with an astounding assortment of pictures, in many cases very much out of time and place. The owner is local physician, amateur archeologist and geologist Dr. Javier Cabrera Darquea.

Most material employed is a gray andesite, an extremely hard granitic semi-crystalline matrix, that is very difficult to carve. They were first seen and recorded by Jesuit missionary Father Simon, who accompanied Pizarro in 1525. Samples were shipped to Spain in 1562.

The stone portraits show very sophisticated surgery skills and medical knowledge, in some cases as advanced, and even more advanced, than today. The prehistoric surgeons, it is evident, possessed knowledge several steps beyond modern-day surgery.


The Ica Burial Stones of Peru
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTmFv8CWnxI

Ica Stones – Peru

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TXv2Z6dinSA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTmFv8CWnxI

http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=ica+stones&aq=f 

http://truedinos.webnode.com/artifacts/evidence-from-south-america/

This Ica stone shows the famous images known as the Nazca lines. This may well mean that the Nazca people are one of the Pre-Columbian civilizations that made Ica stones
 

 

Inca Numbers System

 

Yupana



The yupana (Quechua for "counting tool") is a device used by the Incas, presumably as a type of calculator. – using maize kernels

 


 

 

Quipu

 

 

 

Sketch of a Quipucamayoc from El
primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno
Shown on the lower left side is a Yupana.
 

 

 

Inca Numbers and Counting Systems

 

A Spanish priest called José de Acosta, who lived among the Inca from 1571 to 1586, described the way they counted using their yupanas:

To see them use another kind of calculator, with maize kernels, is a perfect joy. In order to carry out a very difficult computation for which an able computer would require pen and paper, these Indians make use of their kernels. They place one here, three somewhere else and eight, I know not where. They move one kernel here and there and the fact is that they are able to complete their computation without making the smallest mistake. As a matter of fact, they are better at practical arithmetic than we are with pen and ink. Whether this is not ingenious and whether these people are wild animals let those judge who will! What I consider as certain is that in what they undertake to do they are superior to us.


José de Acosta in his book Historia Natural Moral de las Indias.

Yupana

In addition to the yupana, they were able to track all important facts required to rule such a vast empire by using a memory tool made of knotted strings called a quipu or khipu. Very few of these quipu are left today, but there are modern versions so people can learn about the old ones from these.

Quipu



They were basically thin strings looped around a larger cord. Knots of coloured thread or string were then tied around the thinner strings. The positioning of the knots indicated the value. The closer to the large cord a knot was placed, the greater its value.

It appears that the Incas worked in a system that was base ten, although some argue it was base seven, and others base forty! The example below shows the number 586 made on one thread. There are five touching knots tied close to the main cord representing the hundreds, a space then eight touching knots tied below for the tens, another space and then six touching knots tied near the free end of the string to represent the units/ones.

For larger numbers more knot groups were used, one for each power of ten, in the same way as the digits of the number system we use. To distinguish between different things that were being counted coloured threads or strings would be used for example numbers of cattle might be recorded on green strings while numbers of sheep might be recorded on white strings.

There are many drawings and descriptions of quipus made by the Spanish invaders. Here is what Garcilaso de la Vega, a man living at the time, said about them:

According to their position, the knots signified units, tens, hundreds, thousands, ten thousands and, exceptionally, hundred thousands, and they are all well aligned on their different cords as the figures that an accountant sets down, column by column, in his ledger.

https://www.ncetm.org.uk/resources/14531

http://www.atlantisbolivia.org/decodingquipumaths.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

La pirámide de la Cultura Andina (Peruana) de Pucará  ?????

 

http://www.absolut-peru.com/page/112/

 

 

 

Back to Top of Page

 

 

 

 Peru - Ancient Inca and Pre-Inca Civilizations

Art - Textiles - Books - Museums

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Art - Pottery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gold Moche Headdress - Feline. 400 A.D. Larco Museum Collection

During pre-Columbian times, Peru was one of the major centers of artistic expression in The Americas, where Pre-Inca cultures, such as Chavín, Moche, Paracas, Huari (Wari), Nazca, Chimu, and Tiahuanaco developed high-quality pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture.

Drawing upon earlier cultures, the Incas continued to maintain these crafts but made even more impressive achievements in architecture.


 

 

 

 

 

 

Inca Culture Ceramic Whistles - Ocarina

 

Inca culture ceramic whistles (ocarina)

Imperial period (1300-1532 AD)

Cusco: Museo de Arte Precolombino

 

The Incas achieved a considerable level of mastery in shapes and iconography although they never quite matched the skill level of the northern coastal cultures. There is no doubt that these whistles in the shape of a snail were used ritually--its deep sound must have had a meaning that eludes us today. both are outstanding examples of excellent form, design, and finish.

 

 

 

 

Textiles

 

At Museum in Lima ??

 

Peru, Pre-Inca civilization, Chancay culture. Close up of poncho decorated with gold.

 

 

 

 A woolen Peruvian poncho from the Huari culture
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Royal Patterns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Books

 

 

 

 

 

 

Museums

 

 

La Estela de Raimondi en el

Museo  Nacional de Arqueología,

Antropología e Historia del Perú. -

Este monolito refleja el estilo artístico

de la Cultura Chavín

 

 

 

The National Archeology and Anthropology Museum - Lima

 

Located in the district of Pueblo Libre, this Museum contains a quite complete and marvelous exhibition. If you just want to check one museum, then this may be your best bet as it contains pre-Inca and Inca exhibitions, as well as pieces from different types of artwork (textiles, ceramics, mummies, etc.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peru Gold Museum - Sala Museo Oro del Peru - in Lima

 

It is located in Larcomar (Miraflores), this exhibition is a collection of the top jewels of the Golden Museum.

 

 Peru's most famous gold collection. A spectacular collection of Peruvian Ancient gold and the Arms of the World Collection.

 

Most of the Inca Gold Art was melted down by the Spaniards

 

Most of the Inca art was melted down by the Spanish to satisfy their lust for gold and silver. Much about the Inca and their culture is surrounded in mystery and their art is no different. Still other examples of their art were destroyed simply because the idea of a polytheistic society was appalling to the Christian sensibilities of the Spaniards.

 

 

 

Larco Herrera Museum - Lima - Peru

 

 

 

 

 

Mochica - Earrings

 

 

 

 

 

Larco Herrera Museum - Lima - Peru

Location Av. Bolivar 1515, Pueblo Libre, Lima 21, Peru

 

 

—World’s largest collections of pre-Columbian art including Moche, Nazca,

Chimú, and Inca pieces at the Larco Museum in Lima Peru

 

Also, they have and exhibition of Inca Erotic Pottery...

 

http://theonlyperuguide.com/2011/12/lima-museum%C2%B4s-museo-larco/

 

http://www.museolarco.org/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Royal Tombs of Sipán Museum - Lambayeque -  Peru

http://www.go2peru.com/peru_guide/chiclayo/sipan_museum.htm

 

 The Lord of Sipan -  Explora Films ( 7 mins)

 

This documentary deals with the Moche culture, which developed on the northern coast of Peru, between 100 BC and 600 AC. It is a fairly unknown culture that disappeared after reaching its peak. A Great Lord who governed and was buried with great honors, so that his message would endure in time, and a man, an archaeologist named Walter Alva, who rescued him from his tomb to fulfill his plan of the past. Today, everyone has heard of the Moches, thanks to the discoveries made during the last two decades. The finds continue, however, and the splendor of this unique civilization still surprises the world.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM04wP_ep_Y&feature=player_embedded

 

El Señor de Sipán - Explora Films ( 7 mins)

 

Este documental trata sobre la cultura moche, que se desarrolló en la costa norte del Perú, entre los siglos 100 a.C. y el 600 d.C. Una cultura casi desconocida, que desapareció tras alcanzar su cenit. Un Gran Señor, que gobernó y fue enterrado con grandes honores, para que su mensaje perdurara en el tiempo, y un hombre, un arqueólogo llamado Walter Alva, que lo rescato de la tumba para cumplir con el designio del pasado. Hoy el mundo sabe sobre los moche, gracias a los descubrimientos realizados en las dos ultimas décadas, pero los hallazgos continúan y el esplendor de esta singular civilización sigue sorprendiendo al mundo.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OzMBgEYj3G8

 

 

 

 

 

National Museum

This museum, located in San Borja

 

 

Silver and gold crown miniature
Chimú Culture

 

Bottles - Mochica Culture

 

 

Arqueologia Americana >>>>>?

http://arqueologiamericana.blogspot.com/2010/10/piramides-de-5000-anos-en-peru.html

 

"Museo de Sitio del Coricancha" (Archaeological Museum of the Koricancha)


Located next to the Church of Santo Domingo - El Sol Avenue.
Exhibition of the collection of archaeological Inca and pre-Inca pieces found in the excavations carried out in the "Templo de Koricancha" (Temple of Koricancha)

http://www.cusco-peru.info/museums_cusco.htm

 

Pre-Columbian Art Museum in Cusco

http://www.cusco-peru.info/Pre-Columbian_Art_Museum_Cusco.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Many Stone Works phtos, etc…

http://davidpratt.info/andes2.htm
 

 

 

 

 

 

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Peru - Ancient Inca and Pre-Inca Civilizations -

Documentaries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Technology In Nazca and Peru - Full Feature ( 1 Hr: 34 mins)

Researcher David Hatcher Childress and his investigative team head down the Pan American Highway from Lima to Ica and Nazca. In Ica they investigate the huge elongated alien looking skulls discovered in the area, and then they investigate the strange museum of Dr. Cabrera and its stones depicting dinosaurs and humans. Then the team flies over the Nazca figures in order to grasp their amazing complexity. Were they meant to be seen only from the air by the sky people? The team then journeys to Cuzco in central Peru and visit the megalithic sites of Ollantaytambo, Machu Picchu and Sacsayhuaman, including a special examination of megalithic rock quarry near the Inca Trail. Extra features.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V34lK5eCaRQ
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Technology In Peru and Bolivia ( 1Hr:37 mins)

Join Researcher David Hatcher Childress and British Engineer Christopher Dunn as they journey to Cuzco in the Andes Mountains to examine evidence for the possible use of advanced rock-machining techniques. Going to ancient cities and megalithic quarries, they again examine saw marks, advanced lifting and moving techniques, as well as evidence of Pre-Incan megalith builders at Machu Picchu and Ollantaytambo. They continue on to Lake Titicaca where they investigate the strange megalithic towers and a "stargate" cut into solid rock. Finally they examine the huge granite megaliths at Tiwanaku and Puma Punku for signs of the use of power tools and other advanced, ancient technology. Blows the lid off South American archeology with evidence of advanced ancient technology thousands of years old.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pGW0-wYo48E&feature=relmfu
 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Machu Picchu Structures ( 46 mins)

Ancient Megastructures: Machu Picchu


To celebrate his god-like status as "Son of the Sun God", the creator of the Inca Empire, Pachacuti the "World-Shaker" orders the building of an "impossible" city in the sky - a sacred residence where he will commune with his fellow gods. The site, perched high in the Andes almost two-and-a-half kilometers above sea level, presents the Emperor's engineers with an almost impossible task. How to make sure this city of spectacular temples, altars, residences, and fountains will resist the torrential rains, landslides, and earth tremors of the region. Brilliantly conceived, perfectly executed, using techniques that even surpass those of today, the Inca create their masterpiece: Machu Picchu. When Spanish Conquistadores and European smallpox destroy the Inca Empire, Machu Picchu is abandoned, lost, and forgotten - living on only in legend. Rediscovered only 100 years ago, Machu Picchu remains today, just as the Emperor Pachacuti intended, one the most awe-inspiring and mysterious monuments in the world.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cp0tMuzeYgE&feature=related
 

 

 

 

 

 

Machu Picchu Decoded ( 52 mins)

Deep in the Andean mountains lays a mysterious ruin named Machu Picchu. For 400 years it sat abandoned on its misty cliff, the quintessential lost city in the jungle. Rediscovered in 1911, it contained no written records or carvings, nothing that could shed light on its history. For a century since, it has defied the endless scores of visitors and scientists who attempted to understand its purpose. Who were the mysterious people who built it and why did they build it here? Today an international team of archeologists, engineers and scientists are finally piecing together the clues. Together they are discovering astonishing new burials, revealing the intricacies of its ingenious engineering and finally decoding the secrets of Machu Picchu.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P23gdE46bv0&feature=relmfu


 

 

 

 

 

The Lost Civilisation Of Peru (BBC) - ( 49 mins)

 

Two thousand years ago a mysterious and little known civilization ruled the northern coast of Peru. Its people were called the Moche.

They built huge and bizarre pyramids that still dominate the surrounding countryside; some well over a hundred feet tall. Many are so heavily eroded they look like natural hills; only close up can you see they are made up of millions of mud bricks.

Several of the pyramids, known as 'huacas', meaning sacred site in the local Indian dialect, contain rich collections of murals depicting both secular and sacred scenes from the Moche world. Others house the elaborate tombs of Moche leaders.

Out in the desert, archaeologists have also found the 2,000-year-old remains of an extensive system of mud brick aqueducts which enabled the Moche to tame their desert environment. Many are still in use today. Indeed there are signs that the Moche irrigated a larger area of land than farmers in Peru do now.

But who were the Moche? How did they create such an apparently successful civilisation in the middle of the desert, what kind of a society was it, and why did it disappear? For decades it was one of the greatest archaeological riddles in South America. But now at last, scientists are beginning to come up with answers.

Today, after 1,500 years, the Moche, and their legacy are beginning to take their place in world history. The story of the Moche is an epic account of society that thought it could control the world and what happened to it when it found it couldn't. It's a story of human achievement and natural disaster, human sacrifice and war.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9cNB-UGEqqI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The War Against Time - The Secrets Of The Incas ( 46 mins)

The Secret of the Incas: Myth, Astronomy, and the War Against Time


The Inca Empire, at its peak, was the largest kingdom on Earth. The Incas were known as master builders, fearsome warriors, and practitioners of human sacrifice.

Yet in the year 1532, this mighty state was conquered, overnight, by fewer than 200 Spanish adventurers. How could this happen? Step by step, Sullivan decodes the myths of the Incas to reveal that they embody an astoundingly thorough record of astronomical events - a record so precise it can be checked against a modern computer program.

And he uncovers the Incas' tragic secret: they knew they were doomed. As they watched the skies for over a thousand years, the priest-astronomers of the Andes came to believe that great transitions in the heavens foretold great transitions here on earth.

In the fifteenth century, they read the sky and saw the signs of an apocalypse. So the Incas took a desperate gamble: if events in the heavens could influence those on earth, perhaps the reverse was true.

Their rituals of warfare and human sacrifice were nothing less than an attempt to stop time, to forestall the cataclysm that would sweep their world away. 

The Inca gamble failed, for just at the time the prophecy predicted, the Conquistadors arrived. Yet even as their world collapsed, the Andean shamans set their wisdom afloat in the waters of time, aboard the vessel of myth.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JCW35nSeLP0&feature=related
 

 

 

 

 

 

Machu Picchu Road to the Sky ( 45 mins)

The beautiful tale retold, of the epic civilization that was the Inca. See the remarkable way in which the people thrived in a wealthy civilization where all of the people were content and cared for. See the amazing masonry in stunning visual hd. Admire the architecture and beauty of their roads and cities.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1zSVQJ1Te4&feature=related


 

 

 

 

 

 

Gosts of Machu Picchu - NOVA  ( 53 mins)

 

Perched atop a mountain crest, mysteriously abandoned more than four centuries ago, Machu Picchu is the most famous archeological ruin in the Western hemisphere and an iconic symbol of the power and engineering prowess of the Inca. In the years since Machu Picchu was discovered by Hiram Bingham in 1911, there have been countless theories about this Lost City of the Incas, yet it remains an enigma. Why did the Incas build it on such an inaccessible site, clinging to the steep face of a mountain? Who lived among its stone buildings, farmed its emerald green terraces, and drank from its sophisticated aqueduct system? NOVA joins a new generation of archeologists as they probe areas of Machu Picchu that haven't been touched since the time of the Incas and unearth burials of the people who built the sacred site. Ghosts of Machu Picchu explores the extraordinary trail of clues that began on that fateful day in 1911 and continues to the present.

 

http://video.pbs.org/video/1392958573/

 

 

 

 

 

The Inca Trail Trek to Machu Picchu Documentary Oct 2012  - ( 27 mins )

 

 A personal 4 day trip....

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bCGWa_4Nupk

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Ruins, Lost Technologies & Elongated Skulls  ( 1 Hr: 18 mins)

 

Chris Dunn has used his machinist's point of view to analyze the purpose and function of the Giza pyramids. Brien Foerster, who lives in Peru, has been a student of ancient cultures. Together, the two discussed some of the mysterious ancient ruins and lost technologies in Peru and Bolivia, as well as the ancient elongated skulls in the area. Foerster hypothesized that when the Incas found the location of Cuzco (in Peru), they decided to build a city there because there were already huge megalithic structures at the site, possibly created thousands of years earlier. The only tools the Incas had were bronze chisels and stone hammers, yet some of the buildings were so finely made, it's
impossible they were constructed with those tools. Perhaps they had "some type of vibrational technology several thousand years ago that we don't even have today," said Foerster.

Dunn studied the stones at Cuzco with David Hatcher Childress, and noted that the repairs made to the earlier culture's work looked primitive in comparison to the original. The Inca used a sophisticated construction with interlocking blocks, so the stones were bound together with precision, he continued. The two also spoke about the ancient and enigmatic ruins in Puma Punku, Bolivia-- the only way you could describe some of the artifacts there is that they were cut on a machine because they were so precise, said Dunn.

Foerster talked about his research into the fascinating elongated skulls of Peru. While some were definitely the product of deliberate cranial deformation, farther back in time there were people in the area who naturally had these huge cone-shaped skulls, and the later nobility sought to emulate their ancestors by binding their skulls to create this shape, he suggested. Dunn also shared an update on his research of the Egyptian pyramids, and spoke about photos from last year that revealed mysterious markings and possible evidence for electrical devices in a hidden chamber of the Great Pyramid.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fKeHxB4YU98

 

 

Brien Foerster

 

Lost Ancient Technology of

Peru & Bolivia

 

 

 

Stone Monuments Of Peru:

 Before The Inca... Before The Great Flood?  ( 10 mins)

 

Video by Brien Foerster

 

Stars of 'Ancient Aliens' BRIEN FOERSTER and HUGH NEWMAN on a unique tour exploring the sites in this film

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NW3rGLZ3EyY

 

 

 

 

 

Extensive Youtube Playlist of Brien Foerster >>>

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HmK7Ng0eGV8&list=UUOavg1FtdeuyUTLz3wmuIKQ

 

http://blog.world-mysteries.com/mystic-places/lost-ancient-technology/

 

Lost Ancient Technologies Of Peru And Bolivia With Engineer Chris Dunn

 ( 11 mins)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HmK7Ng0eGV8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hiram Bingham Discovers Machu Pichu in 1911

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On July 24, 1911,  Day in History:  Machu Picchu discovered

 

American archeologist Hiram Bingham gets his first look at Machu Picchu, an ancient Inca settlement in Peru

 

Hiram Bingham, formally Hiram Bingham III, (November 19, 1875 – June 6, 1956) was an academic, explorer, treasure hunter and politician from the United States. He made public the existence of the Quechua citadel of Machu Picchu in 1911 with the guidance of local indigenous farmers. Later, Bingham served as a member of the United States Senate.

 

Bingham was not a trained archaeologist. Yet, it was during Bingham's time as a lecturer – later professor – at Yale that he discovered the largely forgotten Inca city of Machu Picchu. In 1908, he had served as delegate to the First Pan American Scientific Congress at Santiago, Chile. On his way home via Peru, a local prefect convinced him to visit the pre-Columbian city of Choquequirao. Bingham published an account of this trip in Across South America;

 

Bingham was thrilled by the prospect of unexplored Inca cities, and in 1911 returned to the Andes with the Yale Peruvian Expedition of 1911. On July 24, 1911, Melchor Arteaga led Bingham to Machu Picchu, which had been largely forgotten by everybody except the small number of people living in the immediate valley  Bingham returned to Peru in 1912 and 1915 with the support of Yale and the National Geographic Society.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiram_Bingham_III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://dingeengoete.blogspot.com/2012/07/this-day-in-history-jul-24-1911-machu.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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