The Western Xia also built

pyramidal tombs




JianJunTen (General's Tomb), or the "Pyramid of the East," in Ji'an, near

the border with North Korea.




Chinese Pyramids


The worlds largest pyramid is rumored to be in Qin Lin county in a 'forbidden zone' of China, estimated at nearly 1,000 ft high and made of impounded earth and clay, and holding vast tombs. The Chinese govt have long denied the existence of 100 or so pyramids though the increasing tourism to the Xian tombs area (the Terracotta Army) is threatening the secrecy with tourists climbing the 25-100m pyramids for themselves.


Google Map - Pyramid near the City Xian, on 34.22 North and 108.41 East.


"There was a time when Chinese pyramids were considered speculation and myth but now we can say, yes, there are pyramids in China. For many years scholars considered chinese pyramids as nothing more than large mounds, but things have changed... Most of the earlier stories were based on the existence of the “Great White Pyramid.” A photo of this pyramid in the Qinling mountains was said to have been taken by Americans in 1945, but it remained in military files for 45 years….








Giant Mummies and Pyramids of China ( 4 mins)

Perfectly preserved Caucasoid mummies and pyramids discovered in China, thousands of years before the Silk road, the earliest inhabitants to the area.

Yingpan Man, his 2.00 meter (six-foot, six-inch) long body and the clothes and artifacts discovered in the surrounding tombs suggest the highest level of civilization in the ancient Tarim Basin region. Buddhism origins.


White Pyramid -  Mysterious Pyramid of China ( 4 mins )

Mysterious pyramid of China - legendary White Pyramid is located 100 km from Xi'an. It calls Liangshan mountain but many evidences show that this a great pyramid constructed from the clay and stone plates.






The Maoling Mausoleum is the burial site of Emperor Wu Di


Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, China - This is the tomb of the First Qin Emperor of China, in the Linton District in China






The Warrior Emperor & Terracotta Sculptures,  depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.


The Terracotta Army (simplified Chinese: 马俑; traditional Chinese: 兵馬俑; pinyin: bīngmǎ yǒng; literally "soldier and horse funerary statues") or the "Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses", is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210-209 BC and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife.


The figures, dating from 3rd century BC, were discovered in 1974 by some local farmers in Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi province, near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: 秦始皇陵; pinyin: Qín Shǐhuáng Ling).


The figures vary in height according to their roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots and horses. Current estimates are that in the three pits containing the Terracotta Army there were over 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which are still buried in the pits.[1] Other terracotta non-military figures were also found in other pits and they include officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians.








Terracotta Warriors Army & Horses

The Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses are the most significant archeological excavations of the 20th century.


A unique selection of some 250 artefacts, including the famous life-size terracotta soldiers of the first Qin Emperor's army, will take visitors back through 1,000 years of Chinese art and history. Bronze vessels, ceramic figurines, jade ornaments, gold swords, architectural fittings and military accoutrements, invaluable evidence of the material culture of the Chou dynasty (1045-221 BC), the first Qin empire (221 BC- 206 BC) and the Western Han dynasty (206 BC-23 AD), will shed light on the birth of a new cultural and geo-political cohesion that would indelibly permeate China for centuries to come.















Terra Cotta Warriors: Guardians of China's First Emperor










The Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China in part to protect the Chinese Empire or its prototypical states against intrusions by various nomadic groups or military incursions by various warlike peoples or forces. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC these, later joined together and made bigger, stronger, and unified are now collectively referred to as the Great Wall.[6] Especially famous is the wall built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang. Little of that wall remains. Since then, the Great Wall has on and off been rebuilt, maintained, enhanced; the majority of the existing wall was reconstructed during the Ming Dynasty.











China’s Forbidden City

The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing, China, and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost 500 years, it served as the home of emperors and their households, as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government.


Built in 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 buildings and covers 720,000 m2 (7,800,000 sq ft). The palace complex exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture,[2] and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world.










The Temple of Heaven

The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven is a complex of religious buildings situated in the southeastern part of central Beijing. The complex was visited by the Emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties for annual ceremonies of prayer to Heaven for good harvest. It has been regarded as a Taoist temple, although Chinese Heaven worship, especially by the reigning monarch of the day, pre-dates Taoism.


   Temple of Heaven                           Temple of Heaven and Shenyang Imperial Palace Moseum







Legacy:The Origins of Civilization - China -- The Mandate of Heaven ( 53 mins)

Many breakthroughs on which the modern world is based were discovered in China long ago... iron-casting, gunpowder, even printing. When introduced to Europe, these things changed Western civilization. This episode presents the synthesis of East and West.
We humans have been on the Earth for more than a million years, but civilization -- life in cities -- has come about only in the last 5,000. Through history civilizations have rose and fell, carved out of nature, dependent on nature, in the end -- nature took them back. But in the past few hundred years, one form of civilization -- that of the West -- has changed the balance of nature forever. And now it is civilization itself that has become the central problem of our planet. To understand why, we must look afresh at how we see history








Engineering an Empire – China ( 44 mins)

Under the Chin dynasty a strong central government was established; provinces replaced feudal states. The empire was extended into parts of south China. The Great Wall was largely completed, protecting China on the north from the Huns.

The Han dynasty rose to power in 202 B.C., and greatly expanded the empire. Conquests were made in south China, Annam (northern Vietnam), and Korea. The Huns north of the Great Wall were subdued. Han conquests, westward as far as present Afghanistan, brought about trade with the Middle East by way of the Silk Road through Central Asia. China exported vast quantities of silk westward, much of it reaching the Roman Empire.

The Han adopted, for those going into government service, a system of examinations based on the Confucian classics. Scholars edited the classics and discovered and copied many old texts. The first Chinese encyclopedia was compiled. Paper was invented. Buddhism was introduced from India.

The Han dynasty was deposed in 220 A.D. There followed nearly 400 years of divided rule and civil war. During 221-65 China was divided into three separate statesWu, Shu, and Weitraditionally called the Three Kingdoms. The country was reunited in 280 under the Western Chin dynasty, but the state collapsed in 316 following uprisings by various non-Chinese peoples, mainly Turkic, Mongol, and Tibetan. In the south small Chinese states continued to rule. China lost its outlying areas, closing the Silk Road. Political disunity was offset by a general cultural advancement, however. Trade was established with southeast Asia. Buddhism became more prevalent, while interest in Confucianism declined.

Unification of China was achieved by the Sui dynasty (589-618). Under the Sui an extensive system of canals was built, interconnecting the Huang He and the Yangtze River. Chinese control was reestablished over Annam and what is present Chinese Turkestan. Also, the Chinese way of life and system of government began to influence Japan profoundly. Contact was made by way of Korea, where Chinese culture had been dominant since earliest times.








Ancient Chinese Map


An ancient map that strongly suggests  Chinese seamen were first round the world

-          It is a copy, made in 1763, of a map, dated 1418…

-          The detail on the copy of the map is remarkable. The outlines of Africa, Europe and the Americas are instantly recognizable. It shows the Nile with two sources….




Ancient Chinese Inventions


The Diamond Sutra: -

the World's Oldest Book



Ancient Chinese Inventions


China’s rich history provided a wealth of material for creator Zhang Yimou to draw upon for his opening ceremony masterpiece. Throughout the performance, Yimou wove in the theme of the "four great inventions" by the ancient Chinese:


 Printing,  Paper Making,  Gun Powder,  and the Compass.


These themes translated visually into printing blocks, paper scrolls, and fireworks.

This image of printing blocks recalls the printing technique that became prevalent around 1368 B.C.E. in the Ming Dynasty. During this act, the giant printing blocks moved in seamless, majestic waves, creating a visual delight for all of Yimou’s viewers. The awe created by the performance was heightened further when it was revealed that the movement of the printing blocks was performed not mechanically, but by individual performers tucked neatly within each individual block.


They also invented the:


THE FIRST PAPER  - The first paper was made from mulberry bark, bamboo, hemp, linen and silk (200 BC).

Used in agricolture, industry, and by the military, the wheelbarrow appeared in China in 200 BC.

The stirrup increased the efficiency of horses as tools for communication, transportation, and warfare.

Ceramic technology reached a new peak in the 6th century with the discovery of “true” porcelain; hard, white and translucent, it rings to the touch. Production methods would stay a closely guarded secret, keeping its value for export.

The seismometer was invented by Chang Heng in AD 200. It identified the direction of an earthquake when a ball fell from one of the dragons into a frog’s mouth.


THE DECIMAL SYSTEM  - The decimal system developed alongside the writing system and led to mathematical advances after 1400 BC.



Magnetic Compass -

 Ancient Chinese Invention






Compass - Ancient Chinese Invention

A model in Kaifeng of a Chinese ladle-and-bowl type compass used for geomancy in the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD); the historical authenticity of the model has been questioned by Li Shu-hua (1954).

Although an ancient hematite artifact from the Olmec era in Mexico dating roughly 1000 BC indicates the possible use of the lodestone compass long before it was described in China, the Olmecs did not have iron which the Chinese would discover could be magnetized by contact with lodestone.[33] Descriptions of lodestone attracting iron were made in the Guanzi, Master Lu's Spring and Autumn Annals and Huainanzi.[34][35][36] The Chinese by the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) began using north-south oriented lodestone ladle-and-bowl shaped compasses for divination and geomancy and not yet for navigation.[37][38][39] The Lunheng, written by Wang Chong (27 – c. 100 AD) stated in chapter 52: "This instrument resembles a spoon, and when it is placed on a plate on the ground, the handle points to the south".[40][41] There are, however, another two references under chapter 47 of the same text to the attractive power of a magnet according to Needham (1986),[42] but Li Shu-hua (1954) considers it to be lodestone, and states that there is no explicit mention of a magnet in Lunheng.[32] Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) was the first to accurately describe both magnetic declination (in discerning true north) and the magnetic needle compass in his Dream Pool


 Essays of 1088, while the author Zhu Yu (fl. 12th century) was the first to mention use of the compass specifically for navigation at sea in his book published in 1119.[21][38][43][44][45][46][47] Even before this, however, the Wujing Zongyao military manuscript compiled by 1044 described a thermoremanence compass of heated iron or steel shaped as a fish and placed in a bowl of water which produced a weak magnetic force via remanence and induction; the Wujing Zongyao recorded that it was used as a pathfinder along with the mechanical South Pointing Chariot








The Abacus

The abacus was invented during the Yuan dynasty. Because it is able to perform complex calculations, it is often referred to as the first computer and is still used in China today.


Chinese Writing Script on Rice Paper








The first paper was made from mulberry bark, bamboo, hemp, linen and silk (200 BC).


Chinese Writing on  Bark - Bamboo Fiber -  Hemp  - Rice Paper ...


Chinese legend tells that the new invention of paper was presented to the Emperor in the year 105 AD by Cai Lun. Archeological evidence, however, shows that paper was in use two hundred years before then. Either way, the Chinese were significantly ahead of the rest of the world. The craft of papermaking relied upon an abundance of bamboo fiber to produce a fine quality paper.


 History of Chinese Invention - The Invention of Paper




Block Printing


The Chinese invention of moveable type





 Block Printing - Ancient Chinese Invention


Printing come into use in Sui dynasty and was developed and improved by Bisheng of Song Dynasty. Bisheng used the character mode to print a Chinese Character, which is called "live character printing". One Character has a model and the mode can be used for many times until its broken. This method saved a lot of time and energy in carving the words on the wood for every character mode can be reused.

The Character mode was made by sticky earth and then dried in a firing cave. The character mode can be reused in the next printing. Thus quicken the printing speed and save a lot of time.

The technique of printing was spread to Europe by Mongolian in the later years after its appearance. The invention had a great impact in the education and culture of the whole world.

The Chinese invention of moveable type, credited to Bi Sheng in the year 1045 AD, did not significantly impact Chinese society. Three hundred years later in Europe, Gutenberg's development of moveable type revolutionized the Western world. Why? The Chinese language uses 3000 to 5000 characters in an average newspaper. The English language, in comparison, uses 26 characters in an average newspaper. Clearly, manipulating 5000 characters on a printing press took much longer than moving 26. Still, the invention of moveable type furthered Chinese technology and its role in the advancement of human civilization.










Imagine their enemy's surprise when the Chinese first demonstrated their newest invention in the eighth century AD. Chinese scientists discovered that an explosive mixture could be produced by combining sulfur, charcoal, and saltpeter (potassium nitrate). The military applications were clear. New weapons were rapidly developed, including rockets and others that were launched from a bamboo tube. Once again, the raw materials at hand, like bamboo, contributed ideas for new technologies.













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