Earth Magnetic Field & Magnetic Reversal

 & The Magnetosphere









Cutting-up a Magnet?



What’s a Magnet?

A magnet (from Greek μαγνήτις λίθος magnḗtis líthos, "Magnesian stone") is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets.

What is a magnet? What does a magnet do? An invisible force called the magnetic field attracts iron objects together. This force can be very strong. A better question is ``Why does a magnet attract iron objects?''. We must look at what a magnet is made of.

All magnets have two poles: a north pole and south pole. The north and south poles make up a dipole. Both poles repel each other. For example, try forcing two north poles of two magnets together. The invisible magnetic field makes it feel as if there is a water balloon between them. Opposite poles such as the north and south pole attract strongly.

A magnetosphere is formed when a stream of charged particles, such as the solar wind, interacts with and is deflected by the intrinsic magnetic field of a planet or similar body. Earth is surrounded by a magnetosphere, as are the other planets with intrinsic magnetic fields: Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Jupiter's moon Ganymede has a small magnetosphere — but it is situated entirely within the magnetosphere of Jupiter, leading to complex interactions. The ionospheres of weakly magnetized planets such as Venus and Mars set up currents that partially deflect the solar wind flow, but do not have magnetospheres, per se.


What happens when a magnet is cut in two?


A couple of different things can happen when you cut a magnet in half. If you do it gently you can end up with two magnets. You can think of a magnet as a bundle of tiny magnets, called magnetic domains, that are jammed together. Each one reinforces the magnetic fields of the others. Each one has a tiny north and south pole. If you cut one in half, the newly cut faces will become the new north or south poles of the smaller pieces. You could keep slicing smaller and smaller slices like a loaf of bread and keep getting thinner magnets, each with a new set of poles. Remember, I did say though you only get two magnets if you cut them gently. The magnetic domains in a magnetic material can be knocked loose, by bumping or vibrating the magnet (like when sawing it in half). If knocked loose, the domains are no longer arranged neatly, so they do not reinforce each other. If they are in a random orientation, with their fields pointing all over the place, they cancel each other out. ....



Schematic of Earth's Magnetosphere.

The solar wind flows from left to right.


A view from the IMAGE satellite showing Earth's Plasmasphere using its Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) imager instrument.



Earth's Magnetosphere

Schematic of Earth's magnetosphere. The solar wind flows from left to right.

The magnetosphere of Earth is a region in space whose shape is determined by the Earth's internal magnetic field, the solar wind plasma, and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The boundary of the magnetosphere ("magnetopause") is roughly bullet shaped, about 15 RE abreast of Earth and on the night side (in the "magnetotail" or "geotail") approaching a cylinder with a radius 20-25 RE. The tail region stretches well past 200 RE, and the way it ends is not well known.

The outer neutral gas envelope of Earth, or geocorona, consists mostly of the lightest atoms, hydrogen and helium, and continues beyond 4-5 RE, with diminishing density. The hot plasma ions of the magnetosphere acquire electrons during collisions with these atoms and create an escaping "glow" of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) that have been used to image the hot plasma clouds by the IMAGE and TWINS missions.



The collapse of the earth's magnetic field, which both guards the planet and guides many of its creatures,

appears to have started in earnest about 150 years ago. The field's strength has waned 10 percent to

15 percent so far and this deterioration has accelerated of late, increasing debate over whether it portends

 a reversal of the lines of magnetic force that normally envelop the earth.


The upward extension of the ionosphere, known as the plasmasphere, also extends beyond 4-5 RE with diminishing density, beyond which it becomes a flow of light ions called the polar wind that escapes out of the magnetosphere into the solar wind. Energy deposited in the ionosphere by auroras strongly heats the heavier atmospheric components such as oxygen and molecules of oxygen and nitrogen, which would not otherwise escape from Earth's gravity. Owing to this highly variable heating, however, a heavy atmospheric or ionospheric outflow of plasma flows during disturbed periods from the auroral zones into the magnetosphere, extending the region dominated by terrestrial material, known as the fourth or plasma geosphere, at times out to the magnetopause.

Earth’s magnetosphere protects the ozone layer from the solar wind. The ozone layer protects the Earth (and life on it) from dangerous ultraviolet radiation.







2012 is a significant year from an

historical and astronomical perspective.


 According to astronomers the Poles of our Sun will reverse towards the end of 2012.


Under the right conditions this could

have a serious knock-on effect on Earth.

A sudden twist in the orientation of

the Sun’s poles could also

reverse the Earth’s poles as well.



Earth Magnetic Field & Magnetic Reversal & The Magnetosphere





Alarming NOAA data, Rapid Pole Shift







NASA: A Giant Breach in Earth's Magnetic Field ( 7:34 mins) !!!!


On June 3, 2007 NASA's five THEMIS spacecraft discovered a breach in Earth's magnetic field ten times larger than anything previously thought to exist. Solar wind can flow in through the opening to "load up" the magnetosphere for powerful geomagnetic storms. But the breach itself is not the biggest surprise. Researchers are even more amazed at the strange and unexpected way it forms, overturning long-held ideas of space physics.




A Giant Breach in Earth's Magnetic Field- & Video..


To Read More About it. Click Here







Earth's Magnetic Field: From Satellites to Reversals ( 58 mins)


How is Earth's magnetic field important to making our planet habitable? Where does it come from, and how quickly does it change? Join Geophysicist Cathy Constable as she delves into these and other questions about one of Earth's most dynamic features, the magnetosphere. Learn how research at Scripps is contributing to our ever-growing understanding of Earth's magnetism. Series: Perspectives on Ocean Science [12/2010] [Science]









Exploring Extremes of Earth's Magnetic Field ( 58 Mins)


The Earth's magnetic field varies on many time scales, waxing and waning in strength, and periodically completely reversing direction. The geologic record of these variations provides important information on the history of our planet. Join Scripps Oceanography geoscientist Jeff Gee for a fascinating glimpse into his fieldwork in paleomagnetism -- from autonomous aircraft measurements over the open ocean to exploration of rock exposures in remote regions of Antarctica. Series: Perspectives on Ocean Science [8/2010] [Science]








Tracking Variations in the Earth's Magnetic Field ( 42 mins)


Join Lisa Tauxe as she describes her research into the long-term behavior of Earth's magnetic field.








Earth (Urantia) Magnetic Pole Reversals Simulation – Animation


Pole Reversal - Polar Shift and December 21 2012 (9:29 mins)







Geomagnetic Reversal

Geomagnetic reversal caused a lot of controversy and fear in the 1980's after John White published a book called "Pole Shift". In his book he claimed that a cataclysmic reversal of the earths magnetic poles was due to happen at any time and would have major effects on the earth and it's people. The planets geological records have shown clear evidence that pole shifts have occurred many times in the past and there is no doubt that it will happen again. Until very recently we believed pole shifts were very gradual and could take thousands of years to move only a few degrees. Recent evidence found by studying the alignment of iron particles in lava flows, however, shown one instance where the earths magnetic field shift by 80 degrees in only 13 days. We are overdue for another such event, as pole shifts occur once every 500,000 years on average and it has now been 780,000 year since the last major shift.

Migratory animals would also become confused by a rapid change in the magnetic field and might stray far from their usual breeding and feeding ground and the very real possibility of mass extinction may be realized. All navigational systems, including compasses and GPS, would be rendered virtually useless after a pole shift, so global trade would likely be brought to a rapid standstill and international travel would be out of the question. Additional communications and power grids could be halted for long periods of time as we learn to cope with rapid fluctuations in the magnetic fields. The field which surrounds the earth also protects us from solar flares and solar storms, shifting pole would most certainly have massive effect on how much exposure we get to the energized particles emitted by the sun and would probably seriously affect the health of all of the earth inhabitants.






Magnetic Poles Reversal


-The model shows that the duration of the magnetic field in one state depends on the intensity of the convection fluctuations and also on the efficiency of the coupling between the two modes. Even a moderate change in convection can greatly affect the magnetic field polarity duration, which could account for “superchrons” - very long periods without geomagnetic reversals. Although little is known about the actual flow inside the Earth’s core, "Recent observations have shown that the ends of superchrons are often followed by major flood basalt eruptions, which are likely to produce equatorial symmetry breaking of convection at the core-mantle boundary, in support of the scientists’ model".


- Reversals of Earth's magnetic fields are probably caused by the same deep-seated magnetic fields that produce cycles of solar magnetic storms: The dense, energetic object at the core of our iron-rich Sun.


The Sun's visible photosphere provides the illusion of a solar "surface" that separates the Earth from the Sun.

In fact, Earth moves through the outer layer of the Sun - the heliosphere - and is gravitationally, electrically and magnetically connected to it.

Solar cycles are actually cycles of deep-seated magnetic fields that periodically poke through the solar "surface" as sunspots, solar storms and violent solar eruptions.

The Standard Solar Model of a Hydrogen-Filled Sun fails to explain solar cycles, as well as many other experimental observations.






We call the Earth's magnetic field the “dynamo effect” or “geodynamo.”




Nova - Magnetic Storm - Earth's Invisible Shield ( 55 mins) !!!!!!

- Pottery acts like a magnetic tape recorder, - That ancient Pottery is a magnetic time capsule of Magnetic Fields on Earth; when fired, the iron in the pots reflect the magnetic field strength of the era when they were made.

- Also, Lava Rock has the same characteristics, the iron particles are set when ejected from a Volcano.

- On the Oregon Mountains, there are some ancient volcanic areas that show extreme fluctuations in a relatively short period of time, flipping north and south very abruptly.

PBS – Timeline of Magnetic Field reversals…


NOVA Magnetic Pole Flip 530,000 Years Overdue & Happening Now?

 ( 53 mins)


Facts about Magnetic North Pole

Since the 70s, the pole has moved more than 1500 km at a rate of 10 kilometres a year. In the 1980s, this increased to 30 km a year. Today, the Pole travels 50, even 60 km - close to 150 metres a day.

Scientists don't quite know why its speed has increased these past 20 years. The magnetic pole is moving northwest of the geographic pole and may soon be across the Arctic Ocean in Siberia.

To find their bearings, sailors the world over must know the exact angle of difference between the two geographic and the magnetic north poles: the 'magnetic declination.'

The magnetic pole moves from the North to the South and vice versa every 250,000 years on average and does it very suddenly. Over 180 reversals have been recorded already.

As the intensity of the magnetic field tends to diminish, our planet becomes more susceptible to solar storms. In 100 years, the intensity has decreased by 15%."





PBS – Timeline of Magnetic Field reversals…



The Shifting of the Earth’s Poles Has Begun
- as Predicted by Edgar Cayce in 1936


“Question: What great change or the beginning of what change, if any, is to take place in the earth in the year 2,000 to 2,001 A.D.?

Answer: When there is a shifting of the poles; or a new cycle begins.”(826-8 given August 11, 1936)

NOVA, the PBS television program, reported startling discoveries about our planet’s electromagnetic poles and fields. The program was titled “Magnetic Storm” and was written and produced by David Sington. The reason this is of interest to us is that Edgar Cayce predicted that the beginning of the New Age would coincide with the beginning of a pole shift.

In this NOVA show, scientists explained: “2,000 miles beneath our feet is the Earth’s molten core. Here a vast ocean of liquid iron generates an invisible force, the Earth’s magnetic field. It’s what makes our compasses point north. But it does a lot more: it helps to keep the Earth a living planet. Our neighbors, Venus and Mars, have only weak magnetic fields, which means they’re unprotected from the deadly radiation sweeping through the solar system. The Earth, on the other hand, exists within a vast magnetic cocoon, a force-field that for billions of years has sheltered us on our journey through space.”

Now scientists have made a startling discovery: it seems there’s a storm brewing deep within the Earth, a storm that is weakening our vital magnetic shield. Peter Olson at Johns Hopkins University explained that “the Earth’s magnetic field has been our protector for millennia, and now, it appears, it’s about to go away.”

In reading 826-1, Cayce indicated that the pole shift would become apparent in 2000 to 2001. The NOVA show revealed that the shift has indeed begun in the South Atlantic Ocean region, between Africa and South America. Here the north-south polarity is fluctuating back and forth, weakening the shield against solar radiation. During the pole shift process, the planet’s electromagnetic shield will no longer channel the solar winds to our current poles, where few people live. The Northern and Southern lights are a result of radiation moving to the poles. Since radiation causes many problems, the weakening of the shield is a concern. A weak magnetic shield also means that the Northern and Southern lights will be seen all around the planet, even along the equator. It may be a beautiful, wondrous, visionary time for Earth but not a healthy time for many of its inhabitants.






Pole Shifts : Growing Evidence for Catastrophic Shifts Past and Present  - Radio Interview ( 1 Hr:18  mins)


George Knapp welcomed researcher Brent Miller, of The Horizon Project, who warned
of mounting evidence that Earth is due for a polar shift which will end civilization
as we know it. "It could happen tomorrow, it could happen 50 years from now, but all
the evidence that we've been able to collect indicates that the next one is about to
happen," Miller cautioned of the global catastrophe that he sees as imminent.

Describing the cataclysmic changes which would befall the planet during such an event,
Miller said that as the poles move, the equator will be upended as well. According to him,
this will result in widespread geographical changes due to wild gravitational shifts.
Noting the preponderance of water on the planet, he said that "during this sloshing about,
as Earth wobbles and reorients itself, what happens is that the waters literally decimate
all the coastal areas around the planet." Painting a grim picture of a post-shift world,


Miller explained that the Horizon Project based their forecast for a polar shift on a growing
number of anomalies around the world. He cited weather oddities, such as snowfall in Baghdad for the first time in over 100 years and the increase in earthquakes in unlikely locations. According to him, off-planet clues, like the increase in solar activity, also lend credence to a polar shift scenario occurring in the future. While he suspected that the worlds' governments knew of this impending disaster, he was doubtful of any official announcement, saying "I think we are given all the warning we're going to be given. We're seeing all the signs."

A growing number of scientists are starting to worry that it is the magnetic pole shift that
seems to be underway that is the real culprit behind climate change. Not man made air pollution, not the sun, not the underground volcanic activity heating up the oceans, but the slow beginning of a pole shift that has been thought to destroy entire civilizations in the past and be one major factor in mass extinctions. NASA recently discovered and released information about a major breach in the earth's magnetic field.





Sun’s Magnetic Field



In this false-color ultraviolet image, the Sun shows a C3-class solar flare (white area on upper left), a solar tsunami (wave-like structure, upper right) and multiple filaments of plasma following a magnetic field, rising from the stellar surface.


The heliospheric current sheet extends to the outer reaches of the Solar System, and results from the influence of the Sun's rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium.



Sun’s Magnetic Field & it’s effect on Planet Earth

The Sun is a magnetically active star. It supports a strong, changing magnetic field that varies year-to-year and reverses direction about every eleven years around solar maximum. The Sun's magnetic field leads to many effects that are collectively called Solar Activity, including sunspots on the surface of the Sun, solar flares, and variations in solar wind that carry material through the Solar System. Effects of solar activity on Earth include auroras at moderate to high latitudes, and the disruption of radio communications and electric power. Solar activity is thought to have played a large role in the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Solar activity changes the structure of Earth's outer atmosphere.



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