Particle Accelerator and Elementary Particles

 CERN – Switzerland - Fermilab & Other Sites



Particle Accelerator and Elementary Particles




Particle Accelerator and Elementary Particles



Aerial view of the SLAC linear accelerator:

The linac is underground and traced

 in white.




A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams.

There are two basic classes of accelerators, known as electrostatic and oscillating field accelerators. Electrostatic accelerators use static electric fields to accelerate particles. A small-scale example of this class is the cathode ray tube in an ordinary old television set. Other examples are the Cockcroft–Walton generator and the Van de Graaf generator. The achievable kinetic energy for particles in these devices is limited by electrical breakdown. Oscillating field accelerators, on the other hand, use radio frequency electromagnetic fields and circumvent the breakdown problem. This class, which development started in the 1920s, is the basis for all modern accelerator concepts and large-scale facilities. Rolf Widerøe, Gustav Ising, Leó Szilárd, Donald Kerst and Ernest Lawrence are considered as pioneers of this field, conceiving and building the first operational linear particle accelerator, the betatron, and the cyclotron.

Alongside their best known use in particle physics as colliders (e.g. LHC, RHIC, Tevatron), particle accelerators are used in a large variety of applications, including particle therapy for oncological purposes, and as synchrotron light sources for fields such as condensed matter physics.

Because colliders can give evidence on the structure of the subatomic world, accelerators were commonly referred to as atom smashers in the 20th century.[3] Despite the fact that most accelerators (but ion facilities) actually propel subatomic particles, the term persists in popular usage when referring to particle accelerators in general.


High-energy physics

The largest particle accelerators with the highest particle energies, such as the RHIC, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (which came on-line in mid-November 2009[8][9][10]) and the Tevatron, are used for experimental particle physics. ...



Atom Smashers




Side view of a collision of two gold beams

 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.




How Atom Smashers Work


Particle accelerators come in two basic types:

Linear - Particles travel down a long, straight track and collide with the target.
Circular - Particles travel around in a circle until they collide with the target.

Linear Accelerators

In linear accelerators, particles travel in a vacuum down a long, copper tube. The electrons ride waves made by wave generators called klystrons. Electromagnets keep the particles confined in a narrow beam. When the particle beam strikes a target at the end of the tunnel, various detectors record the events -- the subatomic particles and radiation released. These accelerators are huge, and are kept underground. An example of a linear accelerator is the linac at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) in California, which is about 1.8 miles (3 km) long.


Circular Accelerators

Circular accelerators do essentially the same jobs as linacs. However, instead of using a long linear track, they propel the particles around a circular track many times. At each pass, the magnetic field is strengthened so that the particle beam accelerates with each consecutive pass. When the particles are at their highest or desired energy, a target is placed in the path of the beam, in or near the detectors. Circular accelerators were the first type of accelerator invented in 1929. In fact, the first cyclotron (shown below) was only 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter.


Smashing Atoms
In the 1930s, scientists investigated cosmic rays. When these highly energetic particles (protons) from outer space hit atoms of lead (i.e. nuclei of the atoms), many smaller particles were sprayed out. These particles were not protons or neutrons, but were much smaller. Therefore, scientists concluded that the nucleus must be made of smaller, more elementary particles. The search began for these particles.







CERN –Switzerland




CERN –Switzerland



Super Collider


Particle accelerators are amazing bits
of machinery that cross deeply into science fiction territory. They are massive structures built intricately to the highest tolerances.
They are big enough to be seen from space and yet explore the smallest things we study. They take decades to build while they explore the collisions that happen

in fractions of billionths of a second.

They are man-made machines that accelerate things to a hairsbreadth

of the speed of light.




CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) developed the particle accelerator.

CERN Particle Accelerator set for record Energy Collisions

Using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) – a $6 billion underground particle accelerator straddling the Swiss-French border – physicists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will make their first attempts to smack protons together at an energy level unmatched at any other physics lab.

Over the long term, the debris from such collisions are expected to reveal the Higgs boson, a hypothetical subatomic particle thought to be responsible for imparting mass to other particles. Physicists will hunt for evidence of particles associated with dark matter – matter massive enough to act as the scaffold on which the visible universe was built, but sufficiently antisocial so that it rarely interacts with visible matter.

They will also look for evidence that the universe contains several more dimensions than the four that humans experience.






CERN's Large Hadron Collider ( 6 mins)

One of the milestones of science, but also a controversial one, this project is just another attempt to find the connections and patterns previously seen only on calculations but sooner or later, it shall be found and confirm one of the scientist best bets of all times. This is one sheer example of what human curiosity can do! But as humans we should also consider the other side of the equation i.e. what benefit will this do to humanity.




One possible signature of a Higgs boson

 from a simulated proton-proton collision.

 It decays almost immediately into two jets

of hadrons and two electrons,

visible as lines










'The God Particle': The Higgs Boson ( 5:37 mins)

The Standard Model of Particle Physics (Chapter 8): The Higgs Mechanism.

"It's a boson:" Higgs quest bears new particle !!!!!!!

Scientists at Europe's CERN research center have found a new subatomic particle, a basic building block of the universe, which appears to be the boson imagined and named half a century ago by theoretical physicist Peter Higgs.

"We have reached a milestone in our understanding of nature," CERN director general Rolf Heuer told a gathering of scientists and the world's media near Geneva on Wednesday.

"The discovery of a particle consistent with the Higgs boson opens the way to more detailed studies, requiring larger statistics, which will pin down the new particle's properties, and is likely to shed light on other mysteries of our universe."

Two independent studies of data produced by smashing proton particles together at CERN's Large Hadron Collider produced a convergent near-certainty on the existence of the new particle. It is unclear whether it is exactly the boson Higgs described.

But addressing scientists assembled in the CERN auditorium, Heuer posed them a question: "As a layman, I would say I think we have it. Would you agree?" A roar of applause said they did.

Higgs, now 83, from Edinburgh University was among six theorists who proposed the existence of a mechanism by which matter in the universe gained mass. Higgs himself argued that if there were an invisible field responsible for the process, it must be made up of particles. The particle is the emissary of the field and proves its existence.

Despite the excitement, physicists cautioned that there was still much to learn: "We have closed one chapter and opened another," said Peter Knight of Britain's Institute of Physics.

The Standard Model and the Higgs boson







At the CERN Particle Accelerator in Geneva, Switzerland;

we see differentials appearing again and they are ignored. In this photo, we can see the positron and the electron have different wavelengths and each of the 2 do not produce the…



Beauty Baryon Particle





"Beautiful" New Particle Found at LHC – 5-01-2012

Xi(b)* a "brick in the wall" for solving how matter is made

The CMS detector inside the Large Hadron Collider captured evidence of the new particle


New "Beauty Baryon" Particle Discovered at Large Hadron Collider

A never-before-seen subatomic particle has popped into existence inside the world's largest atom smasher, bringing physicists a step closer to unraveling the mystery of how matter is put together in the universe.

After crashing particles together about 530 trillion times, scientists working on the CMS experiment at Switzerland's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) saw unmistakable evidence for a new type of "beauty baryon."






CERN: Neutrino Particles travel faster than light speed? ( 4 mins)

Puzzling results from CERN, home of the Large Hadron Collider, have confounded physicists - because it seems subatomic particles have beaten the speed of light.

Neutrinos sent through the ground from Cern toward the Gran Sasso laboratory 732km (454 miles) away in Italy seemed to show up a tiny fraction of a second early.

Physicist Brian Cox talks to Shaun Keaveny on BBC 6 Music about this baffling find - he says that if it is right, it could require a complete rewriting of our understanding of the laws of the Universe.







Scientists in Sweden film moving electron for the first time ( 1 mins)

Scientists in Sweden film the sub-atomic particle, the electron, for the first time. An electron is approximately 1867 times smaller than a proton and is constantly moving.

How does the Electron move around the atom? ( 1:30 mins)



The Undiscovered Particles on the Edge of Known Physics



Wave–particle Duality


Particle impacts make visible the interference pattern of waves




Elementary Particles




Science – The fact that when scientists observe tiny particles, and they expect a certain behavior, the particles behave that way. - If they expect a different behavior, the particles respond the same way as expected!!!! – That is a very good evidence that we affect matter with our minds !!!!!!!!!!

Wave–particle duality postulates that all particles exhibit both wave and particle properties. A central concept of quantum mechanics, this duality addresses the inability of classical concepts like "particle" and "wave" to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects. Standard interpretations of quantum mechanics explain this paradox as a fundamental property of the Universe, while alternative interpretations explain the duality as an emergent, second-order consequence of various limitations of the observer. This treatment focuses on explaining the behavior from the perspective of the widely used Copenhagen interpretation, in which wave–particle duality is one aspect of the concept of complementarity, that a phenomenon can be viewed in one way or in another, but not both simultaneously.


In physics, a photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force. The effects of this force are easily observable at both the microscopic and macroscopic level, because the photon has no rest mass; this allows for interactions at long distances. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens or exhibit wave interference with itself, but also act as a particle giving a definite result when its position is measured.

What is a Photon?

Under the photon theory of light, a photon is a discrete bundle (or quantum) of electromagnetic (or light) energy. Photons are always in motion and, in a vacuum, have a constant speed of light to all observers, at the vacuum speed of light (more commonly just called the speed of light) of c = 2.998 x 108 m/s.

( See below on google search>>>!!!!!!!!!!!!!)

Photon Wave-Particles









  • The Standard Model is the simplest set of ingredients - elementary particles - needed to make up the world we see in the heavens and in the laboratory
  • Quarks combine together to make, for example, the proton and neutron - which make up the nuclei of atoms today - though more exotic combinations were around in the Universe's early days
  • Leptons come in charged and uncharged versions; electrons - the most familiar charged lepton - together with quarks make up all the matter we can see; the uncharged leptons are neutrinos, which rarely interact with matter
  • The "force carriers" are particles whose movements are observed as familiar forces such as those behind electricity and light (electromagnetism) and radioactive decay (the weak nuclear force)
  • The Higgs boson came about because although the Standard Model holds together neatly, nothing requires the particles to have mass; for a fuller theory, the Higgs - or something else - must fill in that gap


Amir D. Aczel




Present at the Creation - Discovering the Higgs Boson


By: Amir D. Aczel


The Large Hadron Collider is the biggest, and by far the most powerful, machine ever built. A project of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, its audacious purpose is to re-create, in a 16.5-mile-long circular tunnel under the French-Swiss countryside, the immensely hot and dense conditions that existed some 13.7 billion years ago within the first trillionth of a second after the fiery birth of our universe. The collider is now crashing protons at record energy levels never created by scientists before, and it will reach even higher levels by 2013. Its superconducting magnets guide two beams of protons in opposite directions around the track. After accelerating the beams to 99.9999991 percent of the speed of light, it collides the protons head-on, annihilating them in a flash of energy sufficient—in accordance with Einstein’s elegant statement of mass-energy equivalence, E=mc2—to coalesce into a shower of particles and phenomena that have not existed since the first moments of creation. Within the LHC’s detectors, scientists hope to see empirical confirmation of key theories in physics and cosmology.

In telling the story of what is perhaps the most anticipated experiment in the history of science, Amir D. Aczel takes us inside the control rooms at CERN at key moments when an international team of top researchers begins to discover whether this multibillion-euro investment will fulfill its spectacular promise. Through the eyes and words of the men and women who conceived and built CERN and the LHC—and with the same clarity and depth of knowledge he demonstrated in the bestselling Fermat’s Last Theorem—Aczel enriches all of us with a firm grounding in the scientific concepts we will need to appreciate the discoveries that will almost certainly spring forth when the full power of this great machine is finally unleashed.

Will the Higgs boson make its breathlessly awaited appearance, confirming at last the Standard Model of particles and their interactions that is among the great theoretical achievements of twentieth-century physics? Will the hidden dimensions posited by string theory be revealed? Will we at last identify the nature of the dark matter that makes up more than 90 percent of the cosmos? With Present at the Creation, written by one of today’s finest popular interpreters of basic science, we can all follow the progress of an experiment that promises to greatly satisfy the curiosity of anyone who ever concurred with Einstein when he said, “I want to know God’s thoughts—the rest is details.”


"God particle": Why the Higgs boson matters







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Other Particle Accelerators







The Tevatron at Fermilab


Aerial view of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)



Fermilab Building




Fermilab - National Accelerator Laboratory


Fermi ( Enrico Fermi) National Accelerator Laboratory advances the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter and energy by providing leadership and resources for qualified researchers to conduct basic research at the frontiers of high energy physics and related disciplines.


Enrico Fermi - Fermilab gets its name from a pioneer in the science of particle physics.


Aerial photo of the Tevatron at Fermilab, which resembles a figure eight. The main accelerator is the ring above; the one below (about half the diameter, despite appearances) is for preliminary acceleration, beam cooling and storage, etc.











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