Pulsars - Novas - Super Novas – Nebula

 Quasars - Collision of Galaxies






Pulsars - Novas - Supernovas – Nebula -  Quasars

- Collision of Galaxies














Colliding Galaxies






A pulsar (portmanteau of pulsating star) is a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation. This radiation can only be observed when the beam of emission is pointing toward the Earth, much the way a lighthouse can only be seen when the light is pointed in the direction of an observer, and is responsible for the pulsed appearance of emission. Neutron stars are very dense, and have short, regular rotational periods. This produces a very precise interval between pulses that range from roughly milliseconds to seconds for an individual pulsar.

The precise periods of pulsars makes them useful tools. Observations of a pulsar in a binary neutron star system were used to indirectly confirm the existence of gravitational radiation. The first extrasolar planets were discovered around a pulsar, PSR B1257+12. Certain types of pulsars rival atomic clocks in their accuracy in keeping time.




A nova (plural novae) is a cataclysmic nuclear explosion in a white dwarf star. It is caused by the accretion of hydrogen on to the surface of the star, which ignites and starts nuclear fusion in a runaway manner. Novae are not to be confused with supernovae or luminous red novae.




A supernova (abbreviated SN, plural SNe after supernovae) is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. It is pronounced /ˌsuːpərˈnoʊvə/ with the plural supernovae /ˌsuːpərˈnoʊviː/ or supernovas. Supernovae are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months. During this short interval a supernova can radiate as much energy as the Sun is expected to emit over its entire life span.[1] The explosion expels much or all of a star's material[2] at a velocity of up to 30,000 km/s (10% of the speed of light), driving a shock wave[3] into the surrounding interstellar medium. This shock wave sweeps up an expanding shell of gas and dust called a supernova remnant.

Nova means "new" in Latin, referring to what appears to be a very bright new star shining in the celestial sphere.



A nebula (from Latin: "cloud";[1] pl. nebulae or nebulæ, with ligature or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Originally, nebula was a name for any extended astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, was referred to as the Andromeda Nebula before galaxies were discovered by Edwin Hubble. Nebulae are often star-forming regions, such as in the Eagle Nebula. This nebula is depicted in one of NASA's most famous images, the "Pillars of Creation". In these regions the formations of gas, dust, and other materials "clump" together to form larger masses, which attract further matter, and eventually will become massive enough to form stars. The remaining materials are then believed to form planets, and other planetary system objects.


Quasars & Microquasars

A quasi-stellar radio source ("quasar") is a very energetic and distant active galactic nucleus. Quasars are extremely luminous and were first identified as being high redshift sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves and visible light, that were point-like, similar to stars, rather than extended sources similar to galaxies.

While the nature of these objects was controversial until as recently as the early 1980s, there is now a scientific consensus that a quasar is a compact region in the center of a massive galaxy surrounding its central supermassive black hole. Its size is 10–10,000 times the Schwarzschild radius of the black hole. The quasar is powered by an accretion disc around the black hole.



Collision of Galaxies

Interacting galaxies (colliding galaxies) are galaxies whose gravitational fields result in a disturbance of one another. An example of a minor interaction is a satellite galaxy's disturbing the primary galaxy's spiral arms. An example of a major interaction is a galactic collision.






"Impossible" Pulsar Breaks the Rules | Space News  ( 6 mins)


A newly discovered star has astonished a team of scientists. They say that nothing at this moment can explain what is happening. The star is called a "pulsar," which is a star that appears to pulse rapidly with intense radio wave emissions. However, this pulsar switches unpredictably between radio and x-ray emissions, leaving astronomers openly baffled.








White Dwarfs, Nebulas, Super Novas, Pulsars and Black Holes  ( 6 mins)

An excerpt I have taken from a National Geographic documentary called Journey to the Edge of the Universe.

It is narrated well and this section specifically covers the dying aspect of a star.

Very informative and puts a few things in perspective for those who are clueless to how a star such as our very own Sun develops through its retirement days.

let me know if you want more on the Universe and similar such thought provoking subjects.



Pulsars, Pulsar Wind Nebulae, and Supernova Remnants - Article











Pulsars  & Neutron Stars





PSR J0108-1431:  Geriatric Pulsar  - Composite


GB 1428+4217 - A Quasar





GB 1428+4217 - A Quasar

A quasar at a distance of about 12.4 billion light years from Earth.



Quasars & Micro-Quasars





Cassiopeia A
The supernova remnant that was

Chandra's "First Light" has been

observed over time.


Tycho's Supernova Remnant

The remnant of an exploded star in the Large Magellanic Cloud.




Chandra X-Ray Observatory Images :

Supernovas & Supernova Remnants




Kepler's supernova remnant - Combined Images


NASA's three Great Observatories -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory -- joined forces to probe the expanding remains of a supernova. Now known as Kepler's supernova remnant, this object was first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including famous astronomer Johannes Kepler.

The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.

Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in the panel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining them with Hubble's visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more complete picture of the supernova remnant.

Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope (colored yellow) reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas.



Crab Supernova

The Crab Nebula, remnant of SN 1054.


Crab Nebula - A supernova remnant and pulsar located 6000 light years from Earth in the constellation of Taurus.




Crab Supernova - The Crab Nebula


SN 1054 is a Supernova that was first observed as a new "star" in the sky on 4 July 1054 AD, hence its name, and that lasted for a period of around two years. The event was recorded in multiple Chinese and Japanese documents and in one document from the Arab world. While it has been hypothesized that SN 1054 was also observed by American-Indian tribes and Europeans, it has not been conclusively proven.

The remnant of SN 1054, which consists of debris ejected during the explosion, is known as the Crab Nebula. It is located in the sky near the star Zeta Tauri (ζ Tauri). Some of the remnant of the explosion formed a pulsar, called the Crab Pulsar (or PSR B0531+21). The nebula and the pulsar it contains are the most studied astronomical objects outside the Solar System. It is one of the few Galactic supernovae where the date of the explosion is well known. The two objects are the most luminous in their respective categories. For these reasons, and because of the important role it has repeatedly played in the modern era, SN 1054 is the best known supernova in the history of astronomy.

The Crab nebula is easily observed by amateur astronomers thanks to its brightness,








M83's Center

M83 is one of the closest spiral galaxies to our own Milky Way Galaxy and from a distance of 15 million light-years, appears to be relatively normal. Zooming in on M83's nucleus with the latest telescopes, however, shows the center to be an energetic and busy place

An image with similar perspective from the Chandra X-ray Observatory shows the region is also rich in very hot gas and small bright sources. T


he remnants of about 60 supernova blasts can be found in the image at left.









 Antenna - Collision of Galaxies




Collision of Galaxies







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